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The Royal Canadian Navy founded in , took possession of its first ships, two tired steel-hulled former Royal Navy cruisers, the Rainbow , in , stationed at Esquimalt on the west coast and the Niobe at Halifax on the east coast. During the post-World War I era, a plethora of technologies were introduced, including the car, air service, air navigation, paved roads, radio, the telephone, refrigeration, wonder drugs and powered farming, mining and forestry equipment.

The Ford Motor Company of Canada , founded in Windsor, Ontario in , was the first major company to introduce the automobile to Canada. It manufactured cars in that city and was the first company to use the assembly line manufacturing technique in Canada. Facilities were established in the McGregor wagon factory in Walkerville now part of Windsor , where the first vehicle off the line was a Model C.

Production of the Model T was introduced in and by the company was manufacturing motors, the first internal combustion engines built in Canada, at the Windsor plant. Following the war, the Ford Meteor was assembled until production moved to the new Ford plant in Oakville in , where production has continued until this day. The company manufactured Buicks, Oldsmobiles and Oaklands on its assembly line in Oshawa. Studebaker Canada Ltd. The automobile was a hit with Canadians. In there were cars in Ontario, by there were 50, in Canada, by , ,, by , , and by , 1,, Of note was Thomas Wilby's Trans-Canada road trip, the first by automobile across Canada, from Halifax to Victoria, in , on a series of highways that became known as the All Red Route.

As the car gained in popularity local automobile clubs were founded. In nine of these clubs from across the country got together to form the Canadian Automobile Association. Cars required gasoline , and the first service station in Canada was built in Vancouver on Smythe Street in Most early stations were informal curb-side affairs, and it was not until the twenties that the filling station as we know it began to appear, with Imperial Oil building architect-designed stations for its customers.

In the s, gasoline itself was modified by the addition of tetraethyllead to reduce premature detonation of the gas-air mixture in the cylinder, commonly described as knock, in internal combustion engines. Both health and environmental problems would later become associated with leaded gasoline.

The popularity of the car also had a dramatic impact on urban infrastructure and roads in particular. The dirt, gravel, tar and occasionally cobblestone that characterized most city roads was inadequate for the automobile and towns and cities and provinces across Canada began paving projects creating roads of asphalt and concrete that were more suitable.

The traffic light was also introduced to help regulate the congestion that began to arise in the twenties especially in larger cities like Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. The first in Canada was installed at the corner of Bloor St. Municipalities and provinces acquired snowplows , fleets of trucks with steel blades attached to the front bumper to clear city and provincial roads.

The use of crushed rock salt for melting snow and ice on roads was also introduced during this period. The technique was effective but unfortunately proved to be very corrosive to steel and concrete. This had serious consequences for the undercarriage of the steel vehicles that used the roads in winter as well as the roads themselves along with bridges and parking lots.

The popularity of the car in urban areas also lead to the introduction of the parking meter in the centre of most urban areas. Invented in the US in it progressively found its way onto city streets across Canada in the years that followed. The car began to compete with the streetcar in the thirties and forties and many cities reduced or abandoned this service. New suburbs were built without streetcar lines and urban diesel powered buses were used to provide public transport.

Only a handful of cities continued to maintain streetcar service into the fifties and beyond, most notably Toronto which to this day has a very elaborate public streetcar network. The auto-craze gave rise to a booming do-it-yourself car maintenance and repair movement with businesses specializing in car parts and tools becoming popular.

One of the notable firm in this field, the familiar, Canadian Tire , began operations in Toronto in and has become one of Canada's largest retailers. Long distance travel by aircraft became increasingly important and practical in the postwar years. The first cross-Canada flight began in Halifax on 7 October and ended in Vancouver ten days later. In the twenties and thirties the Canadian north was developed with the help of hundreds of small float equipped "bush planes" used to fly men and supplies to mining, forestry, trapping and fishing camps.

The first commercial air passenger flight in Canada was made in , when two bush pilots flew a fur buyer from Winnipeg to The Pas, Manitoba. National passenger air service was introduced by Trans-Canada Airlines beginning in and Canadian Pacific Airlines starting in Of note was the attempt by Britain to establish an airship service between that country and Canada and a related test flight by the British built dirigible the R was made in July After a successful crossing of the Atlantic the giant craft moored at a mast especially constructed for that purpose at St.

Hubert near Montreal. The ship flew on to Toronto before finally returning to Britain. However, technical problems with the craft prevented further flights and the idea of a Trans-Atlantic lighter-than-air passenger service was abandoned. To facilitate the development of a national aviation service the Government of Canada created a kind of national highway in the sky called the Trans-Canada Airway consisting of airports, radio and weather services and lighting for night flying, at various locations across Canada.

Construction started in but was slowed by the depression. The western leg from Vancouver to Winnipeg was completed in The section from Winnipeg to Toronto and Montreal was inaugurated in and the extensions to Moncton, Halifax and St. John's completed in , and respectively. In , Guglielmo Marconi sent radio signals across the Atlantic Ocean. He established a machine to produce electromagnetic waves at Cornwall in England and a machine to detect these waves at Signal Hill in St.

John's Newfoundland. On 12 December he announced that he had received the transmission of waves sent by the transmitter in England at the station in St John's. Both the AM transmitter and receiver used analog technology. Private independent AM broadcast operations sprouted like mushrooms in cities large and small across Canada during the thirties and forties. The circuits of these devises were based on analog technology.

The teleprinter became a popular technology with telegraph companies beginning in When used with the telegraph system it permitted the automated printing of thousands of telegraph messages and became the backbone of the telegram service offered by the Canadian National Telegraph Company formed in and the Canadian Pacific Telegraph Company. The wirephoto , was introduced in the US by Associated Press in This technology permitted the transmission of a photograph by use of telephone wires and became widely used by newspapers for reporting purposes.

The technology was quickly introduced to Canada by Canadian Press , which provided the service to newspapers across the country. Canadian Press also became the exclusive provider of Canadian wirephotos for Associated Press. The Canadian film industry experienced mixed success during the twenties and thirties. Film maker Ernest Shipman produced five features between and before meeting with financial failure.

The successful Canadian-owned Allen Theatre chain attained an important place in the exhibition market before being taken over by Famous Players Canadian Corporation Cineplex Entertainment in The technology of the talking cinema or "talkies" was introduced to Canada in by that company to take advantage of the arrival of talking films produced in Hollywood.

The first Canadian "talkie" was "The Viking", an adventure story about sealing off the coast of Newfoundland, produced in Associated Screen News of Canada in Montreal produced two notable newsreel series, "Kinograms" in the twenties and "Canadian Cameo" from to The regular production of short films by the newly created Canadian Government Motion Picture Bureau began in the s.

British law encouraging filmmaking in the Commonwealth led Hollywood to circumvent the spirit of the concept by establishing film production companies to make American films in Calgary, Toronto, Montreal and Victoria. These companies produced a small number of features but closed operations when the British law was changed to exclude their films.

By it was one of the major film production studios in the world with a staff of nearly and over films to its credit, including the very popular The World in Action and Canada Carries On series of monthly propaganda films. Plastics were also introduced during these years.

In Toronto, Plastics Ltd. Another firm, Canadian Electro Products of Shawinigan, Quebec, invented polyvinyl acetate which was used in copolymer resins and water-based paints. The wartime production of nitrocellulose naturally led to the manufacture at Shawinigan in , of transparent cellulose film used for packaging. Aluminum also became popular. In , attracted by the availability of cheap hydro power, the Aluminum Company of America established a Canadian subsidiary, the Northern Aluminum Company Alcan at Shawinigan Falls, Quebec to produce that metal using the electrolysis technique.

Corporate changes led to the creation of the Aluminum Company of Canada Alcan in and in the company constructed a giant aluminum smelter at a place it named Arvida, Quebec. Once again the site was chosen for the availability of cheap hydro electricity and the proximity of a deep-water port at Bagotville for large ships carrying bauxite or aluminum ore.

World War II accelerated the demand for aluminum, which was the principal material in aircraft production and the Arvida facility was greatly expanded. In another huge Alcan smelter was built at Kitimat, British Columbia. The growth in popularity of the car also created a need for rubber for automobile tires. Accelerated by the emergency of World War II, a substantial synthetic rubber production industry was established at Sarnia, Ontario in the early forties.

The oil refineries there provided a ready source of raw materials. In particular, the Suspensiod crackers operated there by Imperial Oil produced large quantities of hydrocarbon gases. These were used by a new Crown enterprise, Polymer Corporation created in , and associated private companies, St. Clair Processing Corporation Ltd. Initially production was destined for wartime use on military vehicles but in postwar years output was quickly redirected to civilian automobile production.

The closely related synthetic textile industry appeared in the years just after the First War. The production of artificial silk, more properly known as viscose rayon , made from bleached wood pulp, began in Cornwall, Ontario in , in a factory built by Courtaulds Canada. A year later Celanese Canada began making acetate yarn in a new plant in Drummondville, Quebec. DuPont Canada was the first to manufacture nylon yarn in Canada at its factory in Kingston, Ontario in This secret material was initially used for parachutes but following the war was used to make nylon stockings.

Asbestos has long been known for its fibrous and heat resistant properties. With the rise of the automobile, asbestos became an important material, being used to make brakes. The world's largest asbestos mine, the Jeffrey Mine in Asbestos, Quebec had its beginnings in the when a local farmer W.

Jeffrey began to mine the substance there. Original mining methods were primitive and involved blasting, the use of chisels to remove the mineral from the rock by hand and a crane powered by one horse. By , tons of asbestos were being removed from the open pit mine per year.

The mine was purchased by the Johns-Manville Company of the US in and has since become the largest asbestos mine in the world, over two kilometres in diameter and metres deep. The material was used for insulation in buildings and ships and, of course, for automobile brakes.

However, serious health problems, including lung cancer, have been associated with its mining and use, and in recent years mining activity there has diminished. With the rail building era coming to an end, the rise of the automotive industry in southern Ontario provided the Hamilton steel mills of the Steel Company of Canada and the Dominion Foundries and Steel Company with a new market. Dofasco introduced the basic oxygen steelmaking at its mills in Hamilton in In the latter part of the century, Algoma, in Sault Ste.

Marie, built coke oven batteries and blast furnaces, while phasing out the open-hearth and Bessemer steel-making process in favour of the basic oxygen steel-making. The industrial production of bread became notable during these years. One bakery of note, The Canada Bread Company Limited, was founded in as the result of the amalgamation of five smaller companies. Industrial bakeries such as this were characterized by the use of large machines for the mixing of dough, which was placed in pans on slow moving conveyor belts that transported them through giant ovens, where they were baked.

Large automated packaging machines wrapped the finished loaves at great speed. Improvements in transportation and packaging technology throughout the decades allowed a shrinking number of bakeries to serve every larger markets. In there were about commercial bakeries across the country but by the figure stood at , while in there were Meat packing grew to become Canada's most important food processing industry during this period.

Burns and Company, which became the largest meat processor in western Canada. In Toronto in the innovative Harris Abattoir was established to export chilled sides of beef to the British market. The industry grew rapidly during the war, supplying meat to Canadian and British troops overseas. However, it underwent a period of consolidation in the twenties due to a loss of markets.

Burns and Company in Calgary, Alberta. The increasing popularity of the electric refrigerator in Canadian restaurants and homes made it practical for manufacturers to make available various frozen foods.

The first such offering, a frozen strawberry pack was produced in Montreal and Ottawa beginning in by Heeney Frosted Foods Ltd. Cold breakfast cereal became increasingly popular during these years. Wheat and later corn flakes were developed in the US by the Kellogg brothers in and the Kellogg Company was formed in Since that time the company has manufactured and distributed in Canada a wide variety of breakfast cereals including Corn Flakes, , Bran Flakes, , All Bran, and Rice Krispies, Although neither the tin can nor soups were remarkable in any way in the thirties, the combination of the two in the form of the well known Campbell's soup was very popular.

The Campbell Soup Company introduced its soup products to Canada in , making them at its factory in Toronto on the lake shore. Instant coffee was another tasty innovation introduced during these years. Head office research invented instant coffee and began selling it around the world including Canada, as Nescafe in It became hugely popular with allied troops during World War II.

In the instant chocolate drink, Nestle Quik, was introduced to Canada. The sanitary napkin and Kleenex brand facial tissue were introduced in the s. Kimberly, Clark and Co. Kimberly Clark formed in the US in , invented cellucotton in It used this material as the basis for a sanitary napkin and marketed the product as Kotex beginning in Kleenex, initially intended for the removal of face cream, was introduced in In the company formed what would become, Canadian Cellucotton Products Limited, for the marketing of these and other products in Canada and internationally.

The first practical electric razor , the Sunbeam "Shavemaster" and the Remington "Close Shaver" made available in the US in and in Canada shortly thereafter. With a base of caustic soda , the world's first oven cleaner, Easy-Off , was invented in Regina in by Herbert McCool and manufactured in his home in that city until , when production shifted to Iberville, Quebec.

The product has since become the most popular oven cleaner in the world. In in Montreal, a McGill student, J. Creighton, established the basic rules for ice hockey as we know it today. The world's first facility dedicated to hockey, the Westmount Arena was built in Montreal in while the first industrial refrigeration equipment for making artificial ice in Canada was installed in by Frank and Lester Patrick for their new arenas in Vancouver and Victoria.

The Mutual Street Arena , with its artificial ice surface, was built in Toronto in With the development of wide span roof structures the construction of large indoor ice rink stadiums became possible.

These two technologies were used to build the Montreal Forum , home of the legendary Montreal Canadiens hockey team, in Montreal in and Maple Leaf Gardens home of the Toronto Maple Leafs , in that city in There were also advances in the lighting of public, commercial and industrial buildings. In , after decades of development in the US and Europe, General Electric in the US, and shortly thereafter Westinghouse, began to sell the fluorescent lamp.

Because of its lower power consumption its use was quickly adopted for large-scale applications. These lights were quickly made available to the Canadian market through the Canadian subsidiaries of these two companies.

It quickly gained a reputation for its wild and even violent ride and one passenger, Amos Wiedrich was killed in when he stood up to take off his coat while the coaster was in motion. The dump truck and bulldozer were introduced during these years for a variety of earth moving tasks including road building and canal construction. Mawhinney and the bulldozer was developed in the US in Both quickly became popular worldwide.

Medical treatment benefited from the introduction of the electrocardiograph , used to diagnose heart problems, in large hospitals in the late twenties. There were also important innovations with respect to the treatment of epilepsy during this period. In Montreal, Dr. Wilder Penfield, with a grant from the US Rockefeller Foundation, founded the Montreal Neurological Institute at the Royal Victoria Hospital Montreal , in to study and treat epilepsy and other neurological diseases.

The military suffered a huge decline in the s and s. The Royal Canadian Air Force founded in , was largely a bush and float plane operation. Only in the s did it acquire a modest combat capability with a handful of British Armstrong Whitworth Siskin fighters and a squadron of Hawker Hurricane fighters as the clouds of war grew menacing. In the army began to retire its horses and was issued four 6-wheeled Leyland tractors in , to tow its pound guns.

Four 3-inch cwt. As a reflection of this intense and diverse engineering activity, the Canadian Council of Professional Engineers was established in This organization was renamed Engineers Canada in Canada was involved in the wartime Manhattan Project to build an atomic bomb, including the Montreal Laboratory for nuclear research by scientists from Britain, and American contracts with Canadian firms Eldorado Gold Mines for mining and processing uranium and a heavy water plant built by Consolidated Mining and Smelting CMS at Trail, British Columbia.

The years following World War II introduced even more innovations, including television, the transistor radio, synthetic fabrics, plastic, computers, super highways, shopping centres, atomic energy, nuclear weapons, transcontinental energy pipelines, long range electric transmission, transcontinental microwave networks, fast food, chemical fertilizer, insecticides, the birth control pill, jet aircraft, cable TV, colour TV, the instant replay, the audio cartridge and audio cassette, satellite communications and continental air defence systems.

In the early s Canadian Satellite Communications Cancom assembled a package of Canadian and American television channels which it offered to remote communities throughout the northern regions of Canada. The signals were distributed by Anik satellite and made available to the local populace through cable. By the later part of the decade several hundred communities were using this service.

There was also technological innovation in the telephone system. Direct distance dialing was initiated in Canada in , beginning with customers in Toronto and on 1 July of that year the Trans-Canada Microwave system, known as the Trans-Canada Skyway, went into service.

The service eventually spread and was offered continent wide. The Anik satellite series of communications satellites initially built by Hughes Aircraft and operated by Telesat Canada starting in formed the basis of the world's first domestic satellite communications service.

After considerable political turmoil Canada acquired nuclear weapons from the Americans under a "dual key" arrangement on 1 January By all these atomic weapons had been returned to the United States. While there were no accidents involving nuclear weapons in Canadian hands, there were at least two involving USAF aircraft flying in Canadian airspace. On 14 February a USAF B heavy bomber, serial , carrying one Mark 4 Fat Man type atomic bomb experienced multiple engine failures while flying south off the coast of British Columbia and jettisoned the bomb over Squally Channel.

In eastern Canada on 10 November , a USAF B heavy bomber, serial , flying from Goose Bay, Labrador, to the United States, experienced engine trouble and in accordance with standard operating procedures, jettisoned the Mark 4 atomic bomb it was carrying over the St. The plane flew on to a base in the US. Computers were introduced in a variety of areas at this time. The National Research Council Canada experimented with fire-control computers towards the end of the war.

Lawrence Seaway then under construction. Avro Canada in Toronto worked unsuccessfully to develop the fire-control computer for the Velvet Glove air-to-air missile for the highly advanced but ill-fated Avro Canada CF Arrow interceptor. Avro Canada made extensive use of computers in calculations for aircraft design and manufacturing processes, including CNC.

The machine contained 55, vacuum tubes, weighed tons and occupied a half-acre of floor space. It could perform 75, instructions per second. By there were 41 computers in operation in Canada with big business, universities or the military. In the Royal Bank of Canada was the first bank in Canada to introduce computers for its operations, followed by the Toronto-Dominion Bank in When they introduced the credit card about the same time these records were kept on large central computers as well.

It was this experience with large computer systems linking hundreds of branch offices across the country that enabled the banks to introduce the ATM and the debit card , across Canada in the s. Computers were also introduced to control complex industrial processes. Interprovincial Pipe Line Limited of Edmonton was one of the first Canadian companies to employ computers as a means of controlling the flow of gas in its very large pipeline system. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited used computers to control atomic fission in its power reactors.

In the Toronto Stock Exchange became the first stock market in the world convert to electronic trading with the introduction of its Computer Assisted Trading System. Twenty years later, in , the exchange closed its trading floor and converted to a fully automated, computer-driven trading system. Computers were also recognized as a tool for policing. The Canadian Police Information Centre which was established in under the auspices of the RCMP, has operated, since that date, a national computer data base that provides information relating to criminal activity in Canada.

During this period Canada Post applied computer readable codes to speed the delivery of mail. On 1 April the postal code system was introduced. The technique involved the use of a six-character geographic code placed on the envelope or parcel by the sender. The code was in turn machine scanned by a computer-driven optical reader that signaled the sorting equipment to direct the item to the proper destination.

While technically effective, the introduction of the system lead to serious labour trouble at Canada Post for several years by unionized workers who were afraid of pay cuts or job loss Postal codes in Canada. In transportation, several significant works were completed, including the Toronto Subway , , the Trans-Canada Gas Pipeline, , the St. On August 10, , the Avro Canada C Jetliner , a mid-range four-engine passenger jet, made its first flight, just 13 days after the world's first and eight years before the US's first, the Boeing The B was introduced by these companies in the early seventies.

These were used to provide passenger service to small city centre airports in Toronto, Ottawa and Montreal. A number of international carriers also acquired these aircraft to provide similar services elsewhere in the world. The first Canadian owned helicopter began operation in Canada on 12 March The development of trans-oceanic aviation in the postwar years created a need for accurate weather information over the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

A number of ships, both converted RCN vessels and purpose built CCG weather ships were stationed at these points to gather weather information during these years. Of particular significance was the conversion from steam to diesel by Canada's two great railways. Beginning in the mid fifties the CPR and Canadian National Railways began replacing their steam locomotives with diesel locomotives.

By the conversion was mostly complete. The Volkswagen was introduced to Canadians in and became very popular with drivers who wanted greater fuel economy than that provided by the larger cars then on the market. It was sold in Canada until The seat belt became a standard feature of domestic passenger cars in the late sixties.

The catalytic converter was also introduced during these years. The first devices, designed to reduce air pollution from automobile exhaust, were installed in the model year for US cars manufactured in Canada. Because of environmental concerns and the fact that it was not compatible with these converters, the major gasoline companies in Canada began to eliminate the sale of leaded gasoline that same year.

Although Armand Bombardier invented the snowmobile , the initial production model, the B-7 dating from was a large 7 passenger vehicle. It was not until with the development of the small gas engine that the individual snowmobile or Ski-doo was produced by Bombardier Bombardier Recreational Products in the company factory at Valcourt, Quebec.

A number of competitors in Canada and elsewhere entered the market and sales of snowmobiles skyrocketed with 2 million being sold worldwide between and To this day, snowmobiles remain popular in Canada and other regions with snowy winters. Pedestrian walkways have become important features of some Canadian cities. Climate controlled underground passageways and shopping malls have been features of the downtown cores of Toronto PATH Toronto and Montreal Underground City, Montreal since the mid-sixties.

Arguable the most unusual, is the Plus 15 system in downtown Calgary. Beginning in the mids nuclear-generated electricity was developed under a partnership of industry and government at both the federal and provincial levels. In electricity became commercially available from the large ultimately 8-unit Pickering station near Toronto, Ontario and, starting in , the Bruce station ultimately 8-units as well , near Kinkardine, Ontario.

The electric current supplied by commercial hydro companies to consumers was changed and organizations like Hydro Ontario converted from 25 cycles to 60 cycles during the ten-year period from to The introduction of this technology was not without mishap. On 12 December the experimental NRX reactor at Chalk River suffered a failure of its cooling system and underwent a partial meltdown.

On May 24, , the newly commissioned NRU reactor also a Chalk River experienced a major accident when one of the uranium filled fuel rods caught fire and seriously contaminated the reactor building with radioactive debris. The modern era of oil production in Canada began in when Imperial made its major discovery at Leduc, Alberta.

The availability of oil and gas in Alberta, a half continent away from central Canada provided the impetus for the construction of two huge transcontinental pipelines to the eastern Canadian market. The crude oil pipeline was the first to be built. The construction of first section of the Interprovincial Pipeline from Edmonton to Regina to Superior Wisconsin in the US began in and was completed in an astonishing days.

At the time of its completion it was the longest pipeline in the world. The oil and gasoline industry has grown tremendously since then, mainly to meet the demand for gasoline created by the popularity of the car and for home heating oil. The construction of the transcontinental oil pipeline was followed by that of the gas carrying Trans-Canada pipeline.

Construction was not without mishap as during a pressure test in five kilometres of pipe blew up near Dryden, Ontario. The line crossed the very technically difficult Canadian Shield north of Lake Superior and reached Toronto and Montreal in Political controversies related to the construction of the pipeline contributed to the fall of the St.

Laurent Liberal government in While large pipelines carried natural gas across the continent smaller distribution systems were necessary to carry gas into factories and individual homes, where it was used as a source of heat. Very complex local understreet pipeline networks were constructed in cities across Canada to meet this requirement. The energy crisis of had domestic repercussions with many consumers taking steps to reduce energy costs through the installation of improved home insulation and wood-burning stoves.

The existence in Alberta of large quantities of surface bitumen oil mixed with sand has been known for many years. In the late s the commercial production of synthetic crude oil from this bitumen began near Fort McMurray. Construction at this site, by a company known as Syncrude , began in and the first crude oil was produced there in The complex and costly production process involves scraping the sticky bitumen-laden sand from the surface, transporting it to a processing facility, removing the sand from the bitumen and upgrading the bitumen to a product known as light sweet crude.

The technical scale of the operation is very large. Initially the sandy tar-like bitumen was scrapped from the ground using gigantic powered rotating mechanical wheels equipped with scraping buckets and the oil sand was placed on conveyor belts for transport to the processing plant.

However, the severely cold Albert winters caused the continuous breakdown of the machinery and a new technique was developed. This involves the use of gigantic power shovels and dumptrucks to deliver the bitumen laden sand to the processing plant. Once at the plant the bitumen is removed from the sand with a process that involves the use of hot water. The bitumen is then subjected to fluid coking, hydroprocessing , hydrotreating and reblending.

Syncrude is the largest producer of synthetic crude oil from bitumen sand in the world and the largest producer of oil from a single site in Canada. The forestry industry underwent a notable process of mechanization in the postwar years. The most visible change was the introduction of the chain saw. When originally developed for modern use in the s, this heavy, gasoline engine-driven machine required two men for its operation.

However, improvements in engine technology eventually made the saw small and light enough to be operated easily by one person. In one of the first industrial users, Bloedel Stewart and Welch Ltd. In less than one percent of pulpwood in Canada was cut with chain saws.

Other machines were also introduced during this period. Snowmobiles and tracked machines replaced animals for the hauling of logs. In several Bombardier machines were employed to this end by the Ste. Anne Power Company Limited in Quebec. In Timberland Machines of Woodstock, Ontario developed the Timberbuncher, a self-propelled machine which could move through the forest, cut a whole tree at its base a process known as full tree harvesting and, using a hydraulic arm, place it into a pile for hauling.

Machines that stripped the branches from felled trees, a process known as delimbing, were also introduced at this time. With the help of these technologies, the Canadian pulp and paper industry grew to become one of the major suppliers of newsprint in the world through the operations of companies such as MacMillan Bloedel Limited , Repap Enterprises Inc.

The use of pesticides was a prominent feature of postwar agriculture across Canada. Insecticides based on fluorine, arsenic, rotenone, nicotine pyrethrum as well as herbicides using sulphuric acid, arsenites and salt and finally fungicides based on sulphur, mercury or copper have been very effective in controlling life forms that degrade agricultural output. At the same time these compounds have also had a negative effect beyond their intended sphere of use. DDT was registered for use in Canada from until , when its use was banned.

The product was never manufactured in Canada. Food irradiation , in particular the irradiation of potatoes to prevent sprouting while in storage, was approved for use in Canada in Potash-based chemical fertilizer became an important element of increased agricultural production in Canada and around the world in the postwar era. In Saskatchewan techniques were introduced for the mining of the huge potash deposits found there. These involve both "dry" and "wet", methods of mining. The dry method involves the sinking of a vertical shaft and the use of large powered cutting machines to cut into the potash horizontally.

The wet technique known as solution mining is used to access potash at greater depths. This involves drilling a vertical hole into the deposit into which is pumped hot water. The liquid dissolves the potash underground and then returns to the surface, where another process separates the mineral from the water. Business administration underwent technological change. The ball point pen was marketed in the US in October and in Canada shortly thereafter. The IBM Selectric typewriter , introduced in , quickly became popular with businesses in Canada, as did the Xerox photocopier in the s.

There was important progress in medical technology during this period. Stuart Stanbury established a National Blood Transfusion Programme for the Canadian Red Cross Society , thus making available to those in need, a dependable source of blood for medical purposes. The associated test for blood typing was introduced at the same time. Blood tests would become increasingly sophisticated in the coming years. The electroencephalograph , used for the diagnosis of neurological disorders was introduced in major Canadian medical institutions in the late forties.

The techniques for the mass production and distribution of vaccines and for the mass public inoculation were introduced during these years. Polio was a disease that affected large numbers of Canadian children during the first part of the 20th century. In the US, research by Dr. Jonas Salk in the late s led to the discovery of vaccine for the prevention of this disease. However, there was no technique for volume manufacture of the drug. Connaught Laboratories of Toronto developed a synthetic culture known as "medium ", which enabled the mass production of this polio vaccine beginning in A successful all-Canadian mass inoculation of children using the new vaccine was undertaken in the spring of , the first such mass public health campaign of its type in Canada.

There was also progress with respect to the treatment of heart disease. The pacemaker invented with significant Canadian participation was used to treat patients with arrhythmia. For more serious problems open heart surgery became an option for patients and permitted the repair of faulty heart valves, the clearing of blocked coronary arteries and the resolution of other problems.

Canada's first heart transplant was performed on 31 May , by Dr. The operation took place about six months after the world's first, by Dr. Christian Barnard. Cancer patients were provided with a new option, radiation therapy , through what was popularly known as the "Cobalt Bomb", again developed with important Canadian input.

The use of radio isotopes for diagnostics was also introduced. Chemotherapy also became a treatment option. In the use of a subcutaneous arteriovenous shunt along with the artificial kidney machine allowed hemodialysis for patients with chronic renal failure. The technique of medical ultrasonography also became widely available beginning in the late s and was especially popular with expectant mothers interested in the health and sex of their fetus.

The number of these machines in use has grown greatly over the years. The corneal contact lenses first developed in gained mass appeal in Canada and elsewhere in the s. Made of polymethyl methacrylate PMMA they could be worn up to 16 hours a day. Developments in orthodontics made the straightening of the teeth of children with "braces" commonplace. Children were also often on the receiving end of the tonsillectomy a fashionable surgical procedure during these years.

The surgical replacement of body parts also became possible and was used to treat ailing kidneys and joints such as knees and hips. The availability of cosmetic implants became popular during these years. In , in the US, Dow Corning developed the silicone gel-filled breast implant which was used by women for surgical breast augmentation.

The procedure was common in Canada. In recent years implants containing saline solution have also become popular. Pharmaceuticals attained a high-profile. The availability of the birth control pill in made it possible for women to protect themselves from unwanted pregnancy.

Stress could be treated with tranquilizers , such as valium, introduced in The consumption of vitamins became widespread and supplements were added to staple foods such as milk and bread and were taken in pill form. While most of these drugs were safe, one, thalidomide , had horrific consequences for its users. Thalidomide was invented in West Germany in by Chemie Grunenthal as a sedative. It was noted that the drug was particularly effective in treating the symptoms of morning sickness associated with pregnancy.

The drug was made available under prescription to Canadians beginning 1 April Tragically it was discovered that the drug caused miscarriage and severe birth defects. As a result, the drug was withdrawn from the Canadian market on 2 March The "recreational" use of "soft drugs" such a marijuana , LSD and hashish became part of the s counter culture.

Marijuana was often produced locally using the hydroponic method. The car, cheap gasoline and postwar affluence created boom conditions for the expansion of suburbia. Several standard designs for the single family home on a standard lot were reproduced cookie-cutter style row-upon-row in cities across Canada as subdivision after subdivision sprang up radiating from the central core.

The designs were thoroughly modern, reflecting the optimism of the era, usually with a peaked roof, asphalt shingles and a brick or wood siding exterior and included a living room, kitchen and occasionally dining room and two, three or four bedrooms and a full basement made of poured concrete or cinder block. Floors were usually made of varnished hardwood planks and the walls and ceilings of gyprock. Copper piping brought running water from the serviced street and copper wiring electricity from the rear lot line.

Clay tile pipe carried the sewage from the flush, sit toilet to the main sewer line running under the street. There was usually a driveway beside the house for the family car, and less frequently a carport or garage. Most homes were equipped with a telephone often with a "party" line but these became rare by the s. A television set was also common in almost all homes by the end of the s and the record player gave way to the hi-fi stereo.

Almost all kitchens were equipped with electric refrigerators and electric or less commonly gas, stoves. Where there was gas it was usually piped to the home through a main line running under the street. There were a variety of electrical "labour saving" devices including electrical mixers can openers and carving knives. Central heating was a standard feature and coal, delivered to the home by a diesel powered truck, was the dominant fuel source in the early postwar years.

However, as the s progressed coal gave way to oil and gas heating. Home furnishings were almost all mass-produced and made from wood, fabric and various types of stuffing for cushions. In the kitchen metal chrome tube chairs and formica topped tables were popular. The small front and back yard were maintained with the help of a gasoline-powered lawn mower, and the hedge and bushes were trimmed with electric clippers.

In the early s the high-rise apartment building began to make its appearance in large cities. The self-supporting steel structures were usually seven stories or more, and large buildings contained hundreds of dwelling units. Initially they were especially visible along Highway in Toronto, Metropolitan Boulevard in Montreal and the north shore of English Bay in Vancouver. Since the former city of Hull represents a large area distinct from what was formerly known as Gatineau, to be officially correct and specific many people say " vieux secteur Hull " the former Hull part of town when speaking of it.

The name "Hull" was often informally used to refer to the whole urban area on the northern shore of the river facing Ottawa, so much so that the National Capital Region was often referred to as "Ottawa-Hull", especially in Quebec outside the immediate area. In , there was a referendum to decide whether Hull would remain in Gatineau. The majority of those who voted in Hull voted against the deamalgamation, and the status quo prevailed. Prior to amalgamation in , Hull's population was 66, Census of Canada.

According to the Canada Census , Hull had a population of 69, Hull now depends primarily on the civil service as an economic mainstay. A number of federal and provincial government departments are located here. Two paper mills Scott Paper and the E. Eddy division of Domtar still retain some industrial facilities on the Ottawa River in the centre of Hull, Quebec.

Hull is also Outaouais's cultural centre. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sector within City of Gatineau in Quebec, Canada. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Ontario portal Canada portal. Ottawa: An Illustrated History. Canadian Directories: Who Was Where. Library and Archives Canada. Archived from the original on Retrieved Capstone Seminar Series. University of British Columbia Press.

Ottawa Citizen. Aired: 20 July , 14h47 to 15h University of Toronto Press. CBC News. Jun 23, Random House. Categories : Neighbourhoods in Gatineau Former municipalities in Quebec Former cities in Quebec Populated places established in Populated places disestablished in disestablishments in Quebec.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Sector within City of Gatineau. Sunset on the Hull District.

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