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While the IT recruits know nothing of the analog world, teaming with the existent Surveillance technicians they can begin the cross training needed to support the modern digital Surveillance environment. Running surveillance cameras on the general corporate LAN is extremely rare. An outlying building or a few remote cameras that come back on corporate fiber would be common exceptions.
Regulations and compliance MICS in most Indian casinos do not allow for this type of data co-mingling in addition to the common data architecture is not conducive to mingling. In nearly all casinos the video signals come back to a central room for encoding and recording and are done so via UTP, Coax or Fiber.
Edge encoding or recording are not common place in the casino environment yet although there are exceptions. Video is relentless data that can easily cripple a network if it is not properly configured and dependent on the junction locations chosen to aggregate video feeds Layer 3 switches may have be used which IT may not have out in remote locations.
The primary reason still comes back down to security and compartmentalizing assets which provides an enhanced layer of security for each department. In a casino Player Tracking and or Slots, if not housed in the same system, typically have their own network and resources for the very same reasons Surveillance does. Live video and the ability to move a PTZ well in live video mode is paramount to Surveillance personnel investigations. What is of equal importance is what I call rule. How quickly and smoothly can a VMS solution go from Live to 2 minutes in the past based on operator request.
Many review requests initiated either by Surveillance or Floor personnel do not make it to the stage of exporting or dubbing of video because the first step is to ascertain the veracity of the claim. If reviews cannot be done quickly floor personnel loose precious time needed when the POI Person of Interest is still on the floor and in house.
Many Directors make this topic of the highest importance when reviewing any VMS solution. Rarely are there more than 5 people in a room and the typical is 3 watching all the casino cameras and assets. In almost all cases, casinos have a far greater amount of staff dedicated to watching video than a typical commercial or industrial application and rely heavily on Floor personnel to alert them to any irregularities that may arise on property. Compliance and quality of image are two of the key factors.
The better the incident video asset the more options are afforded to the investigatory and compliance officials in determining the best course of action forward on a given case. All casinos track these incidents although not all systems allow for reports based on this information to be generated.
The few cases that either got away due to inconclusive video or were caught because of the digital system often become the deciding factors in upgrading or justifying a purchase. HD cameras are getting quite a bit of traction via this very point as the overwhelming uses for these are on the gaming floor over table games. Every casino wants the ability to accurately quantify and identify the cards and chips in play on the floor.
Identifying chips and pips of cards from 20 feet in the air with noisy carpet and possible lighting issues is done much better with IP HD cameras than digitally encoded analogue feeds no matter how good the analogue camera may be. With these images Directors are making the case that they could do a more efficient job of protecting the assets of the casino. They would be more aware of what is really going on relying less on judgment calls based on video nuances.
Couple this with the rule and operators can rapidly and with a higher degree of accuracy determine exactly what has or is happening on a table making the split second decision they have to make consistently that much better. Formal ROI analysis for justifying surveillance systems purchases are not common place, but informal criteria measurements are revolving around the concepts of accuracy and use.
Use can be measured by post incident analysis and applying that analysis appropriately. Surveillance could then be viewed as an insurance policy to protect the bigger asset, the casino and its patrons. While there are recurring costs large volume cost happens typically at a 5 year cycle making surveillance a cost effective policy.
Further there is an efficiency component to digital which should be considered. This efficiency gives surveillance the ability to resolve issues faster which allows in turn for personnel to investigate more incidents and more proactivity on the live camera feeds. Legal liability concerns are important, not only for criminal prosecutions but also when dealing with personal injury cases.
In injury cases, surveillance video is a primary determining factor in whether a property settles immediately and avoids the PR and monetary expense of a trial. The visual evidence can quickly determine it is not worth contesting the incident or if there exists other determining factors that can resolve the issue quickly the other way. The video of the pre and post conditions of the incident are also of valued importance in determining the condition of the person prior to the incident.
Lastly fine avoidance is a major factor in surveillance justification. Fines can accrue from the gaming regulation authority due to faulty equipment, lack of coverage or inadequate coverage and retention issues. Casinos can also be shut down if they lose a significant amount of video or require armed guards to be placed on the floor to protect assets while technical issues are resolved. The separation between surveillance and compliance exists to ensure issues such as these are treated very seriously and oversight unbiased in its evaluation of surveillance conditions and operations.
This includes encoders, recorders, storage, switches, monitors and PTZ controllers. This does not include camera costs which will vary depending on the choice of fixed vs PTZ camera. The majority of the video management cost lies in the storage and encoding of the video streams.
Factors such as retention and frame rate dictate all of the storage costs and can affect the encoding cost as several manufacturers discount licensing based on limited frame rate options. These video management costs are roughly double the costs of the commercial market.
Additionally, most VMS solutions have barrier to entry such as core infrastructure and these can be mitigated by larger channel costs or definable product tiers further adding to the variance in the cost. As in any business some integrators charge smaller margins and make it up in volume while others charge a little more for what they hope is perceived as a higher quality offering and solution set.
Very few VMS providers sell directly into the casino market opting to utilize the integrator channel as has been traditionally done over time. Following this model manufacturers are hopefully able to secure more market share while not dramatically increasing sales and service departments leveraging the downstream integrators for such services.
There is a growing trend of transparent pricing to large volume customers by manufacturers being driven by their desire for factory direct locked in pricing. While it is beneficial to the end user purchaser in many ways it is unclear what effect it will have on the downstream integrators which rely on the margin of these goods to provide the services they do for not only the end user but also the vendor themselves.
This shift will introduce complex support models into an already clouded environment that many end users find confusing as to who to call when issues occur. Integrators based on the number of disparate systems they must support and the slim margins they run on may become more discerning on which products they will install and support or look to pass the support directly to the manufacturers themselves.
States that allow gaming have their own standards as well as derived by their respective gaming commissions but many rely on the NGC regulations as a baseline due to its stature in the gaming world. Regulations are constantly being reviewed to address not only loopholes or oversights of an earlier publication but predominately as technology changes and new opportunities are afforded to surveillance are addressed and appropriate use determined.
There will always be late adopters even in Las Vegas which is considered the height of casino surveillance. A lot of it comes down to cost, need and waiting until the final moment of need before making the jump. There are 3 categories: Analog, Hybrid and IP. Analog has no digital encoding whatsoever, Hybrid would have analog cameras being digitally encoded through external encoders and IP has no analog cameras being completely digital from the camera.
Just as with the current installation base the majority of new installs at this point is still Hybrid followed by IP and Analog being non-existent in this area. Conservative estimates expect the casino market to stay this way for the next several years until the challenges of PTZ control and the current Hybrid base of installations gets to the point of replacement.
Recorder redundancy has become very important over the last few years. Today, nearly all manufacturers offer enterprise class recorders featuring redundancy of some magnitude. Both RAID5 and RAID6 data sets can be further enhanced with the addition of a global spare drive which allows the rebuild to happen immediately without technician intervention. Other data redundancy strategies such as triple parity RAID-Z and SAN fabrics are not common deployment architectures at this point although there have been a handful of these installations.
Creating separate RAID1 mirrors for the operating system of internal data based recorders is another level of redundancy currently being offered as it provides a separation away from the data RAID set which benefits performance and troubleshooting.
SAS designed recorders are expected to become normal within the next 12 months as this technology comes down further in price and end users become informed of the benefits of this technology over SATA. UTP is the most common, followed by coax and then fiber. Fiber is specifically used for backbone and long distance analog transmission for analog matrix bays such as tie lines.
If a casino is still analog it is more than likely running Coax but if the property has gone digital or been built in the last 5 years it will more than likely utilize UTP. The topologies used for analog and IP are very different and unless the end user specified a future proof IP design at the time of install they will have to replace much of their infrastructure in order to completely move to IP. The issue with some UTP jobs is that the integrator does not terminate the cable from the camera into a splice point like a block.
This means that for a PTZ one pair video and one pair control the cable has been broken apart, sometimes over long distance, and terminated in end of the line devices. The resultant wire maps are not clear or known as to length so a survey to see what could be used would have to be done incurring further costs. Alternatively, the more common choice is to home run all new UTP cables back to the nearest IDF or other junction closet for backhaul aggregation to the core network switch which could hopefully afford the delivery of PoE to the cameras.
Cable distances on gaming floors vary greatly due to allowed path of the cable making the use of edge hardened switches of tremendous value but mixing hardware vendors is a frightening proposition to many untrained people and can impact installation costs as the degree of difficulty increases. There are several factors that elevate the status of the analog switch such as replacement cost, failure rate, technical familiarity of staff, maturity of replacement technology but feel of PTZ control is nearly always at the top of the list.
PTZs are primarily used to place and zoom on a particular location such as a table game position or to follow an incident or person of interest POI while on the gaming property. While for basic PTZ movement such as spotting a position on the floor the PTZ IP cameras in most cases does and would suffice it is the latter case of advanced PTZ movement which operators complain the most about.
Trying to follow a fast paced incident as it is unfolding through a property with an IP PTZ is very difficult and frustrating to personnel who rely on the split second control and display of an analog matrix to protect and serve their properties. The Hybrid model is one in which the analog and the digital are integrated to function as one in the surveillance environment.
While this can be as simple as encoding all of a sites analog cameras and giving the operators QWERTY keyboards and mice to reside next to their analog control keyboards it can go as far as a complete masking of the analog nature of the system controlling everything through the digital VMS solution.
The benefits of the hybrid model are very similar to the aforementioned matrix switch importance with a few added benefits. These additional benefits typically are the ability to enhance other integrations with matrix control, graphical representations of cameras for ease of selection and training of new operators as well as cost savings in using gear the property already owns.
Although many properties have integrated alarms into the analog matrix configuration the ability to not only display this information on a digital client in a very graphical way and highlight the camera on a map or perform compound actions such as automatic video incident creation escalates the efficiency of department personnel. The analog integration is the bedrock on which other integrations can enhance their value propositions such as analytics, and POS integrations.
By reinforcing how efficiently and seamlessly an operator can be presented with alarm information and by not diminishing their ability to quickly respond to and investigate the alarms directly impacts the efficiency and pleasure with a VMS system choice. While not every VMS solution uses this as a failover point as some have already made the jump to digital failover through the network switch and more will as the use of IP cameras becomes more prevalent and reliance on the analog matrix dissipates.
Key to this integration is the ability to control the matrix during an alarm condition such as equipment failure and route the analog video to other hot standby equipment for recording while notifying personnel of the equipment failure and rerouting of video. VMS providers accomplish these tasks in different ways but the end result is the same and as the primary data is the analog data the only common cross point is the matrix switch. Coupling the speed and efficiency of live analog with the instant review, space savings over VCRs, failover, incident creation and integration capabilities of a digital system offers the best balance of cost and pragmatic efficiency possible at this point.
Casinos are typically very reactionary with regards to their video due to the sheer volume of video assets they have juxtaposed against the number of staff they have watching them. Operators receive requests from floor personnel constantly to watch or review incidents and the greater ease with which these tasks can be performed the more value and satisfaction derived from the system choice.
SD IP cameras offer little to no benefit to working casinos. This is why the primary uses of these devices at this point are over the high liability areas such as table games. Rather than watching the same shot several times over, using de-interlacing techniques or squinting to determine the pips and how many chips are or were on the table with an HD camera this information is retrieved accurately during the first review and is nearly always conclusive. An increasing number of casinos are going to HD for the reasons listed above although the wholesale adoption of IP over analog is still rare.
Most RFPs hitting the street for solicitation will contain a section that addresses the need for HD cameras either as part of the purchase or the ability to do so at a later date without major disruption to the purchase today.
This directly equates to more units moved for the storage manufacturer as still there is more perceived profit in tin than software. With megapixel cameras and the need for some VMS software only manufacturers to partner with storage companies more SAN like deployments have taken place. We would like to thank all our staff, advertisers and content providers who helped make Casino Journal an industry favorite for many years.
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