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In one story, Satan invisibly sits on a rock making it too heavy to remove until Benedict drives him off. In another story, Satan taunts Benedict and then collapses a wall on a young monk, who is brought back to life by Benedict. Pope Gregory also relays that the monks found a pagan idol of bronze when digging at the site which when thrown into the kitchen gave the illusion of a fire until dispelled by Benedict. Archaeologist Neil Christie notes that it was common in such hagiographies for the protagonist to encounter areas of strong paganism.
He contrasts this with the year struggle faced by St. Martin of Tours in western Gaul by pagans angry at his attacks on their shrines: "By the time of Benedict, paganism was in a weaker condition in western Europe than it had been in Martin's time. And, of course, it must be remembered that Martin as a bishop was a much more prominent churchman than Benedict. This was an isolated and unusual episode in Benedict's monastic career. Martin, however, was thrust out of his monastery into the role of a missionary bishop in the fourth century.
Benedict's violence against a pagan holy place recalls both Martin's assault against pagan shrines generations before and the Biblical story of conquering Israel entering the Holy Land see Exodus — De Vogue writes "this mountain had to be conquered from an idolatrous people and purified from its devilish horrors. And like conquering Israel, Benedict came precisely to carry out this purification.
No doubt Gregory had this biblical model uppermost in his mind, as is clear from the terms he uses to describe the work of destruction. At the same time, neither Gregory nor Benedict could have forgotten the similar line of action taken by St. Martin against the pagan shrines of Gaul.
Pope Gregory I's account of Benedict at Monte Cassino is seen by scholars as the final setting for an epic set in motion at Subiaco. In his earlier setting Benedict "had twice shown complete mastery over his aggressiveness, Benedict is now allowed to use it without restraint in the service of God. Where Satan concealed himself behind underlings at Subiaco, at Monte Cassino he drops the masks to enter into a desperate attempt to prevent an abbey from being built, and "that the sole cause of this eruption of satanic action is the suppression of pagan worship on the high places.
While scholars see some similarities between the story of Benedict's encountering demonic phenomena and diabolic apparitions at Monte Cassino with the story of Saint Anthony the Great 's temptation in the desert, the influence of the story of St. Martin is dominant — with the resistance of Satan substituting for Martin's outraged pagan populace.
Unlike the stories that may have influenced Pope Gregory's structure of the biography, Benedict's victories are practical, preventing Satan from stopping work on the abbey at Monte Cassino. Benedict's prayers are portrayed as the driving force behind the building of the abbey and the triumphs over Satan, through prayer: "Benedict the monk wrests from the devil a well-determined base which he never leaves.
He wrote the Benedictine Rule that became the founding principle for Western monasticism , received a visit from Totila , king of the Ostrogoths perhaps in , the only remotely secure historical date for Benedict , and died there. According to accounts, "Benedict died in the oratory of St.
Martin, and was buried in the oratory of St. The Rule of St. Benedict mandated the moral obligations to care for the sick. So in Monte Cassino St. Benedict founded a hospital that is considered today to have been the first in Europe of the new era. Benedictine monks took care of the sick and wounded there according to Benedict's Rule. The monastic routine called for hard work.
The care of the sick was such an important duty that those caring for them were enjoined to act as if they served Christ directly. Soon many monasteries were founded throughout Europe, and everywhere there were hospitals like those in Monte Cassino. Pope Gregory I's account of Benedict's construction was confirmed by archaeological discoveries made after the destruction of Martin and of St. John the Baptist, with additions from the eighth and eleventh centuries, together with their pre-Christian cellars.
The first one which Benedict built in the temple itself was only twelve meters long and eight wide. From this, we can infer a fairly small community. The second oratory, on the mountain-top, where the pagan altar had stood in the open air, was of the same width but somewhat longer Monte Cassino became a model for future developments.
Its prominent site has always made it an object of strategic importance. It was sacked or destroyed a number of times. A flourishing period of Monte Cassino followed its re-establishment in by Abbot Petronax , when among the monks were Carloman , son of Charles Martel ; Ratchis , predecessor of the great Lombard Duke and King Aistulf ; and Paul the Deacon , the historian of the Lombards. In , a donation of Gisulf II of Benevento created the Terra Sancti Benedicti , the secular lands of the abbacy, which were subject to the abbot and nobody else save the Pope.
Thus, the monastery became the capital of a state comprising a compact and strategic region between the Lombard principality of Benevento and the Byzantine city-states of the coast Naples , Gaeta , and Amalfi. In Saracens sacked and then burned it down,  and Abbot Bertharius was killed during the attack.
Among the great historians who worked at the monastery, in this period there is Erchempert , whose Historia Langobardorum Beneventanorum is a fundamental chronicle of the ninth-century Mezzogiorno. Monte Cassino was rebuilt and reached the apex of its fame in the 11th century under the abbot Desiderius abbot — , who later became Pope Victor III.
Monks caring for the patients in Monte Cassino constantly needed new medical knowledge. As Naples is situated on the crossroad of many seaways of Europe, Middle East and Asia, soon the monastery library was one of the richest in Europe. All the knowledge of the civilizations of all the times and nations was accumulated in the Abbey of that time.
The Benedictines translated into Latin and transcribed precious manuscripts. The number of monks rose to over two hundred, and the library, the manuscripts produced in the scriptorium and the school of manuscript illuminators became famous throughout the West. The unique Beneventan script flourished there during Desiderius' abbacy. Monks reading and copying the medical texts learnt a lot about human anatomy and methods of treatment, and then put their theoretic skills into practice at monastery hospital.
By the 10—11th centuries Monte Cassino became the most famous cultural, educational, and medical center of Europe with great library in Medicine and other sciences. Many physicians came there for medical and other knowledge. That is why the first High Medical School in the world was soon opened in nearby Salerno which is considered today to have been the earliest Institution of Higher Education in Western Europe.
This school found its original base in the Benedictine Abbey of Monte Cassino still in the 9th century and later settled down in Salerno. So, Montecassino and Benedictines played a great role in the progress of medicine and science in the Middle Ages, and with his life and work St. Benedict himself exercised a fundamental influence on the development of European civilization and culture and helped Europe to emerge from the "dark night of history" that followed the fall of the Roman empire.
The buildings of the monastery were reconstructed in the 11th century on a scale of great magnificence, artists being brought from Amalfi, Lombardy, and even Constantinople to supervise the various works. The abbey church, rebuilt and decorated with the utmost splendor, was consecrated in by Pope Alexander II. A detailed account of the abbey at this date exists in the Chronica monasterii Cassinensis by Leo of Ostia and Amatus of Monte Cassino gives us our best source on the early Normans in the south.
Abbot Desiderius sent envoys to Constantinople some time after to hire expert Byzantine mosaicists for the decoration of the rebuilt abbey church. According to chronicler Leo of Ostia the Greek artists decorated the apse, the arch and the vestibule of the basilica. Their work was admired by contemporaries but was totally destroyed in later centuries except two fragments depicting greyhounds now in the Monte Cassino Museum. Architectural historian Kenneth John Conant believed that Desiderius' rebuilding included pointed arches, and served as a major influence in the nascent development of Gothic architecture.
Abbot Hugh of Cluny visited Monte Cassino in , and five years later he began to build the third church at Cluny Abbey , which then included pointed arches and became a major turning point in medieval architecture. An earthquake damaged the Abbey in , and although the site was rebuilt it marked the beginning of a long period of decline. In , Pope John XXII made the church of Monte Cassino a cathedral, and the carefully preserved independence of the monastery from episcopal interference was at an end.
That situation was reversed by Pope Urban V , a Benedictine, in Justina of Padua. The site was sacked by Napoleon 's troops in From the dissolution of the Italian monasteries in , Monte Cassino became a national monument. The German military forces had established the kilometre mile Gustav Line , in order to prevent Allied troops from advancing northwards. The abbey itself however, was not initially utilised by the German troops as part of their fortifications, owing to General Kesselring 's regard for the historical monument.
The Gustav Line stretched from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic coast in the east, with Monte Cassino itself overlooking Highway 6 and blocking the path to Rome. On 15 February the abbey was almost completely destroyed in a series of heavy, American-led air raids.
The bombing was conducted because many reports from the British commanders of the Indian troops on the ground suggested that Germans were occupying the monastery, and it was considered a key observation post by all those who were fighting in the field. Subsequent investigations found that the only people killed in the monastery by the bombing were Italian civilians seeking refuge there. The Abbey was rebuilt after the war. Already in , the Group had put in place "calendar displays" on product packaging, as a quality guarantee.
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