Sports and race wagering are the dominant forms of interactive gambling in Australia and interactive gamblers are more likely to be younger males. Most online gambling occurs on home computers, but the popularity of mobile technologies is increasing, allowing Australians to gamble at any time, from any place. Interactive gamblers tend to be more intensely involved in gambling than their land-based counterparts and more likely to experience gambling issues.
Harm reduction may be achieved through initiatives such as regulated gambling sites, community education about the risks of interactive gambling, specialised treatment and prevention programs, and improved understanding of the impact of new technologies on gambling behaviour. The author would also like to acknowledge and thank the Menzies Foundation and Gambling Research Australia for providing funding for and commissioning research on interactive gambling in Australia.
Dr Gainsbury has led and been a co-investigator on two of the largest studies of interactive gambling in Australia. She was invited to consult with the Department of Broadband Communications and the Digital Economy in their review of the Interactive Gambling Act, and has been asked to provide expert testimony and submissions to numerous Australian state and federal inquiries into gambling as well as international government regulators. She has also assisted in the development of online responsible gambling practices, prevention strategies and treatment options for national and international stakeholders.
Interactive gambling One of the most significant changes to the gambling environment in the past 15 years has been the increased availability of interactive or Internet gambling. The findings contribute to existing knowledge concerning participation in online in-play betting and clarify whether individuals who participate in online in-play betting are at increased risk of experiencing gambling problems.
Moreover, this research is needed to inform international policy debates regarding the legalization of online in-play betting. Given the relative lack of research on this area, the study was largely exploratory. However, we hypothesized that use of in-play wagering would be associated with higher problem gambling severity. Recruitment occurred using market research online panel sampling. To participate, respondents had to be 18 years of age or older and have gambled online during the past 4 weeks.
Potential respondents received an email from the market research company providing a brief outline of the study and a URL to access the online questionnaire. Participation was voluntary and respondents could withdraw at any time. Ethics approval for this research was received from the [deidentified] University Human Research Ethics Committee. Respondents were mostly male Fixed choice questions assessed frequency of spending real money on seven types of Internet gambling activities: lottery-type games, slot machines, race wagering, esports betting 1 , sports betting, poker, casino card or table games, and other.
Response options were at least once per day, at least once per week, or at least once in the last 4 weeks. Questions assessed age at which participants had first gambled and modes used to place bets smartphone, computer, tablet, wearable device, telephone, in venue.
Age, gender, education, work status, family household income, language spoken at home, country of birth, and ethnic background. Cronbach's alpha in this sample was 0. The data were analyzed using SPSS Assumptions testing was conducted on all measured variables, including skewness and kurtosis, univariate outliers, and multivariate outliers Mahalnobis distance.
Where instances of homogeneity of variance is violated, a Satterthwaite approximation for degrees of freedom is applied. Age first gambled was highly skewed and leptokurtic, which was corrected with a log transformation. Missing values for the in-play betting variable were excluded on a list wise basis. Chi-square tests and t -tests were used to investigate if group differences existed between sports bettors who participate in in-play betting and those who do not for single-response demographic and gambling behavior variables.
Following these comparisons, a logistic regression was conducted to determine which characteristics differentiate in-play bettors from non-in-play bettors. Twelve predictor variables were used in the logistic regression: gender, age, education level, employment status, income, ethnic background, country of birth, language other than English spoken at home, number of gambling behaviors other than sports betting , age first gambled, highest reported gambling frequency for any gambling game, and PGSI classification binary variable, classified as problem gambling for scores of 8 or higher.
These variables were selected based on established validity from other studies [see, e. For comparison testing, an alpha of 0. Where measurement of certain variables is not conducive to certain analytical procedures i. Just over one third of the participants Participants that bet in-play were statistically more also likely to have completed higher education levels e.
There were no significant differences in terms of reported household income. Comparison of the demographic profiles of participants who bet in-play vs. Table 2 displays reported gambling behaviors and history. In terms of game preference, the most popular form of gambling among participants who bet on sports was lottery-type games. Participants that bet in-play engaged in all forms of gambling at a higher frequency than those who did not bet in-play, with a notably large difference for esports betting Participants that bet in-play engaged in 4.
Comparison of gambling behaviors and history of profiles of participants who bet in-play vs. Chi-square values are not displayed where the question allowed multiple responses to be selected. Of those who indicated that they had placed in-play bets, the most popular mode of access was using online websites and apps via smartphone In-play bettors placed their bets via legal, regulated modes of access, including speaking over the telephone An initial logistic regression was applied to assess which predictor variables statistically differentiated participants who bet in-play from those who did using the 12 predictor variables described in the Methods.
Income and country of birth predictor variables were removed from analysis due to lack of significance and poor contribution to model fit statistics. Ethnic background was also excluded from the final model because sparse data effects both reduced the model fit and led to uninterpretable odds ratios. As a robustness check, the model was run with these variables included, but the model fit improved with their removal.
Overall prediction success was The regression variables were assessed for multicollinearity using Variance Inflation Factor diagnostics, which were under 1. Categorical variables used the following reference groups: gender male , education level post-graduate qualification , employment status work full-time , language other than English spoken at home yes , highest gambling frequency at least once per day , and PGSI classification score 8 or higher.
Logistic regression results for characteristics differentiating participants who bet in-play vs. This study makes a significant contribution by providing insight into the characteristics of those who place in-play bets, overcoming limitations of previous studies which focus on analyzing gambling behaviors without controlling for significant personal variables and betting across different modes and activities.
The results of this study show that among the sample of participants who regularly gamble online, in-play betting is relatively common. Three in 10 participants had placed bets after an event had started, and this occurred mostly via online methods which are prohibited under Australian regulations.
Demographic differences were found between those who placed bets in-play and those who did not: in-play bettors were more likely to be more highly educated, employed, younger, and from culturally and ethnically diverse backgrounds albeit not country of birth. Individuals who received income from welfare sources including a pension, unemployment, or disability benefits, were less likely to bet in-play than respondents who work full time.
As in-play betting was associated with younger age, however, this finding may reflect a likelihood of older participants to be retired. No specific differences were found in relation to gender although the different approached significance with a greater proportion of females engaged in in-play betting.
The relationship between gender and in-play betting and gambling problems warrants additional investigation particularly as several previous studies have been based on almost entirely male samples 20 , Those who placed bets in play were more involved in gambling overall in terms of frequency and number of activities.
This is consistent with previous studies 15 , 20 , Higher levels of problem gambling severity were observed among those who placed in-play bets, which is a novel finding as our results control for a greater range of relevant factors than previous research including individual characteristics, gambling behavior, and gambling history. Several of the characteristics of those who bet in-play are similar to the profile of Australians who use offshore as opposed to only domestic online gambling sites, suggesting there may be some confound or overlap given in-play betting is only available via offshore gambling sites Our hypothesis was supported as after adjusting for gambling involvement, participants who had placed bets in-play were approximately three times more likely to be classified as having a gambling problem than those who had not placed this bet type, indicating an association between in-play betting and gambling problems.
These findings are consistent with previous research 24 which is important as it demonstrates the consistency of findings across jurisdictions despite policy differences in prohibition and legalized in-play betting. As with previous studies, our results are based on cross-sectional data and we cannot draw conclusions regarding causality. The structural characteristics of in-play betting mean that these bets require a rapid decision based on quick reactions to within-game events and are more similar to continuous and rapid gaming than most other forms of wagering which is typically discontinuous with low event frequency.
These characteristics may make in-play betting more appealing and potentially problematic. For example, individuals with gambling problems are more likely to consume impulsively, using immediate forms of gambling in which the time period between bet and outcome is shorter 5 , 27 , This is likely related to findings that higher trait impulsivity is common among those with gambling problems 39 , As such, online in-play betting products may be particularly harmful for individuals who are vulnerable to experiencing gambling problems.
In addition to the lack of evidence regarding causality, our methodology included other limitations. To be eligible to participate in the study, respondents had to have gambled online in the past month, meaning that respondents were likely more frequently engaged in gambling than the broader population of online gamblers.
Further, the survey was described as a gambling study, making it more likely to catch the attention of potential respondents with a specific interest in gambling. As such, the results should be interpreted in relation to this specific sample of online gamblers rather than as an accurate level of gambling involvement or gambling problems among all those who have made in-play bets. In terms of implications, our findings support the prohibition of online in-play betting in Australia based on the principle of limiting the availability of gambling products that are strongly associated with gambling-related harm.
It is crucial to note that the association between in-play betting and gambling problems is independent of involvement in other gambling activities and is consistently found across jurisdictions regardless of policies to legalize or prohibit this gambling activity. The findings suggest that further regulatory attention needs to be paid to this gambling activity and efforts made to identify those who bet in-play to assess for gambling harms as well as to develop specific prevention interventions for in-play betting.
Since the time of data collection, efforts have been made in Australia to reduce the availability of and demand for offshore gambling sites, by which in-play betting can be accessed. The extent to which restricting in-play betting may encourage consumers to use offshore gambling sites should be continuously evaluated due to the risks associated with this activity.
Further research on the mechanisms by which in-play betting may cause harm is warranted, including consideration of other gambling products that allow continuous bets to be placed within short decision periods, such as electronic gaming machines. How to differentiate between different variants of in-play betting and whether particular variants of in-play betting should be regulated, such as those involving longer time periods for decision-making, is a matter for further research.
The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee. SG and AB designed and conducted the survey. BA led the data analysis. SG led the manuscript preparation. BA and AB contributed to the manuscript editing and refining.
All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The handling editor declared a past co-authorship with one of the authors AB. The funding body had no involvement in the research, including but not limited to: the conceptualisation of the manuscript; collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; the writing of the manuscript; or the decision to submit the article for publication.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Psychiatry v. Front Psychiatry. Published online Oct Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article was submitted to Addictive Disorders, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychiatry. Received Jun 22; Accepted Sep The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Associated Data Data Availability Statement The datasets presented in this article are not readily available because this would be a violation of the conditions of ethics approval. Abstract Internationally, Internet gambling is increasingly permitted under regulated licensing conditions; however, the specific products that are legal varies between jurisdictions. Keywords: in-play betting, live action betting, regulation, online gambling, internet gambling, problem gambling, disordered gambling, gambling addiction.
The Regulatory Context Gambling policy has a significant impact on the rates of harm experienced within communities. Structural Characteristics of Online In-Play Betting Structural characteristics of gambling—inherent features of games—can contribute to the acquisition, maintenance, and development of problem gambling behaviors The Association Between Online In-Play Betting and Problem Gambling A series of studies have been conducted using customer account data on bwin , a predominately European gambling site.
The Current Study: Aims and Hypotheses This study aimed to understand the association between online in-play betting and gambling problems in the context of online in-play betting being prohibited on licensed domestic gambling sites. Methods Recruitment occurred using market research online panel sampling. Measures Gambling Frequency and Behaviors Fixed choice questions assessed frequency of spending real money on seven types of Internet gambling activities: lottery-type games, slot machines, race wagering, esports betting 1 , sports betting, poker, casino card or table games, and other.
Demographics Age, gender, education, work status, family household income, language spoken at home, country of birth, and ethnic background. Results Just over one third of the participants Table 1 Comparison of the demographic profiles of participants who bet in-play vs.
Open in a separate window. Gambling Involvement Table 2 displays reported gambling behaviors and history. Table 2 Comparison of gambling behaviors and history of profiles of participants who bet in-play vs. Predictors of In-Play Betting Behavior An initial logistic regression was applied to assess which predictor variables statistically differentiated participants who bet in-play from those who did using the 12 predictor variables described in the Methods. Table 3 Logistic regression results for characteristics differentiating participants who bet in-play vs.
Predictor variable B S. Discussion This study makes a significant contribution by providing insight into the characteristics of those who place in-play bets, overcoming limitations of previous studies which focus on analyzing gambling behaviors without controlling for significant personal variables and betting across different modes and activities. Data Availability Statement The datasets presented in this article are not readily available because this would be a violation of the conditions of ethics approval.
Conflict of Interest The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. References 1. Podesta J, Thomas A. Jordan L. Beating Betting , January 1. Gambling Commission. Gambling Participation in Behaviour, Awareness and Attitudes.
Birmingham, WM: Gambling Commission; Goal Profits. Griffiths MD, Auer M. The irrelevancy of game-type in the acquisition, development, and maintenance of problem gambling. Front Psychol. Associations between national gambling policies and disordered gambling prevalence rates within Europe. Int J Law Psychiatry. Department of Broadband, Communications, and the Digital Economy. Regulation 22
The inquiry provides an update on developments since the Commission's report , and can consider a wide range of issues, including:. Government response. Media release: New Productivity Commission inquiry into gambling. Please note: The draft report and issues paper are for research purposes only. For final outcomes of this inquiry refer to the inquiry report. Draft report. Issues paper.
Skip to Content Search site and publications Search. Home Inquiries Completed inquiries Gambling Gambling Free services for gamblers and their family and friends are now well established in Australia and operate across multiple platforms including via the Internet, telephone and face-to-face.
Compared with email, online real time text-based counselling also referred to as synchronous, instant or real time chat has the most rapid uptake across a range of health disorders. This form of counselling approximates a traditional therapeutic approach to the extent that it is a one-on-one interaction in real time with a professional gambling counsellor. However, there is an absence of the visual and oral cues that comprise elements of other Internet-enabled counselling options e. The rise in online treatment options is partly due to the reluctance of people with gambling problems to seek traditional counselling as well as the rapid expansion of Internet access and Internet-based treatment options.
Responding to these issues can be complex. Barriers to help-seeking have been well established for over 10 years, yet the rates of usage for face-to-face counselling and helplines still remain ostensibly the same Productivity Commission, The absence of verbal and facial communication elements is attractive to many people who use online text-based counselling.
Online counselling is frequently chosen over telephone or face-to-face counselling because it provides access to:. Online counselling is especially valued by people experiencing strong feelings of shame, embarrassment and stigma about their problems. The anonymity afforded by online counselling can circumvent these individual issues. It also addresses structural issues associated with opening hours, travel, cost and wait lists, with hour access from a location of the client's choosing e.
People who access online gambling counselling are mostly new to treatment. Compared to face-to-face or telephone services, online counselling attracts more males, young people and people who make sports bets and wager on horse and dog racing. However, they also report low confidence to resist gambling urges. This suggests that interventions aiming to increase readiness are not optimal for most gamblers seeking help online. Approaches that develop and support self-confidence are more appropriate.
As such, online counselling is an attractive service option for new treatment seekers, males, those who gamble online and family or friends of problem gamblers. People with gambling problems who engage in online counselling typically respond positively to a single session. Clients of the service usually request strategies, support and ideas to better manage their problems. Analyses of sessions suggest they typically involve a detailed discussion of the person's history and, to a lesser extent, developing and exploring future options and strategies.
Eighty-five per cent of people with gambling problems who use online counselling recommend the service Rodda, Lubman, Dowling, Bough, et al. Service users evaluate the character of sessions as deep and meaningful and rate the exchange as easy and comfortable. Taken together, these findings contribute to the growing body of evidence across online, telephone and face-to-face settings suggesting that even a single session of counselling can make a difference to people with gambling problems.
Online counselling appears a viable, effective and welcome option that supports help-seeking and is comparable in efficacy to the first session of a traditional in-person approach. Online real time text-based counselling is attracting a new cohort of treatment seekers who report positive experiences of this new modality. To further advance the field, there is an urgent need for evaluation of the long-term effectiveness of online single session interventions as well as longer-term online engagement as this may be the only help, or the only type of help, accessed.
Gamblers report positive experiences but the suitability of using face-to-face therapeutic approaches and service models in a text-based environment needs to be further understood. Future online counselling enhancements could include interventions matched to client motivations for help-seeking e.
It is important to understand whether and how online counselling may increase uptake of further treatment, services or support from family and friends. Research is also needed to: 1 ascertain whether there are benefits to participating in more than one online counselling session; 2 whether benefits are sustained over time and for whom; and 3 who might benefit from additional online or telephone support i.
Differences in the uptake of online services by gender and age, as well as differing gambling preferences, also need to be examined to allow for greater targeting of interventions and health promotion campaigns, as well as more tailored website content.
Medica TremaEx по воскресеньям же закрыто. Кишечном тракте по воскресеньям же закрыто. Также против по воскресеньям.
Read more on ReachOut. Are you a problem gambler? Here are some signs that gambling may be affecting you and those you care about, as well as some ways you can get help. Read more on Changing for Good website. Various organisations can offer support, assistance and counselling for people who have gambling problems. Read more on Better Health Channel website. Almost everyone gambles from time to time. However, gambling can become a problem for some people when they have trouble setting limits on the time and money involved.
Is gambling affecting your relationships? Gambling can affect couple relationships and relationships with children, extended family, friends and work colleagues. Read more on Relationships Australia website. Cognitive behavioural therapy CBT is a type of psychotherapy used to address different kinds of mental health issues. Healthdirect Australia is not responsible for the content and advertising on the external website you are now entering.
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These may include: missing money or household valuables borrowing money regularly having multiple loans unpaid bills lack of food and household essentials withdrawing from family or at work changes in personality or mood conflict with others feelings of helplessness, depression , or feeling suicidal unexplained absences from important events or commitments.
If you have a gambling addiction, you are likely to experience some of the following: spending more time and money on gambling than you intend to gambling when you feel anxious, sad or depressed the need to gamble with more and more money to achieve a feeling of excitement constant thoughts about gambling repeated unsuccessful attempts to stop or rein in gambling irritability or restlessness if you try to stop gambling resorting to gambling as a way of coping with anxiety or depression , or feelings of helplessness or guilt 'chasing' losses: gambling to win back what has been lost, particularly after heavy losses lying to cover up the extent of your gambling losing a relationship or job because of gambling relying on others for financial support after heavy gambling losses People with gambling addiction may be more likely than others to think about or attempt suicide.
Why do people keep gambling? Many factors may increase a person's chances of developing problems with gambling. Where to get help with gambling addiction Certain types of psychological therapy, for example cognitive behavioural therapy CBT , may help someone overcome gambling addiction. Resources and support For more information and support, try these resources: Gambling Help Online on , 24 hours a day Lifeline on 13 11 14, 24 hours a day Reachout.
This included , 1. These numbers include Australians who may not have actually gambled in but nevertheless experienced problems in due to their gambling behaviour in years prior. For example, problem gambling in may have caused financial problems that stretched into Specifically, 1.
Notes: Values are based on weighted data. They may have been infrequent gamblers, or their problems may have been caused by gambling activity in previous years. Those in higher risk groups were likely to have participated in a higher number of activities. Notes: Values based on weighted data. It is therefore not possible on the basis of these figures alone to ascribe the problems reported by an individual to any one particular activity.
Lotteries had vastly larger numbers of non-problem gamblers 4. However, lotteries , along with EGMs , also had the greatest numbers of participants from all three risk groups, including the largest numbers of problem gamblers. A large number of regular race betting participants experienced problems as well , Bingo, poker, casino table games, and private betting attracted the least numbers of regular gamblers with problems, with less than , participating in each.
Together, the data from Tables 4. For instance, lotteries attracted the largest number of people with gambling-related problems, and yet, those with gambling-related problems constituted only a small proportion of those who participated in lotteries, due to its overwhelming popularity. Likewise, poker, casino table games, and private betting attracted a much lower number of people with problems compared to all other activities, and yet, those with gambling-related problems constituted a much higher proportion of all those who participated in these particular activities.
In fact, poker attracted the least number of regular gamblers, but the highest proportion of those with problems. This is a transposition of the results presented in Table 4. The majority of gamblers within all risk groups regularly participated in lotteries.
For every other activity, rates of participation were higher among gamblers who experienced problems. Casino table games, poker and private betting attracted very low proportions of gamblers within all but the problem gambler group i. Values may not add to totals due to missing PGSI values for some participants. Non-problem gamblers were compared to those with problems to identify characteristics that distinguished between them.
The overall pattern was one where a significantly higher proportion of those with gambling problems were male, aged , Indigenous, were unemployed or not employed excluding retirees and fulltime students , single, lived in a house they rented, lived in a low socioeconomic area, had a low income, and drew their main source of income from a welfare payment, compared to those without problems.
A significantly lower proportion of gamblers with problems lived with children, or only their partner, owned their home with a mortgage, had a university degree, and were retired. This subsection provides a brief sociodemographic comparison of non-problem gamblers and those with problems among those who participated in lotteries, instant scratch tickets, EGMs, race betting or sports betting.
Detailed tables are presented for each of these activities. Cell sample sizes were not large enough to examine the remaining activities at this level of detail. These tables are largely provided for reference, and so only limited analysis is presented below, highlighting some key observations:. Lotteries: Compared to non-problem lottery participants, a higher proportion of participants who experienced problems were male, had a certificate or diploma-level qualification, were not employed, single, lived in a home they rented, lived in a low socioeconomic area, and had a low income Table 4.
Instant scratch tickets: A higher proportion of participants who experienced problems were male, aged , were employed full-time, and lived in a home they rented, compared to non-problem participants Table 4. Electronic gaming machines: A higher proportion of problem participants were male, aged , single, lived alone or in a family with children, lived in a home they rented, and drew their main source of income from a welfare payment, compared to non-problem participants Table 4.
Race betting: A higher proportion of participants with problems were male, single, and lived in a home they rented, compared to non-problem participants Table 4. Sports betting : A higher proportion of participants who experienced problems were male, aged , single, and lived in a home they rented, compared to non-problem participants Table 4.
Estimates include national expenditure and mean expenditure by risk-level, both overall and on each activity. As noted in Chapter 3 , the estimates of expenditure were calculated by multiplying regular gamblers' self-reported typical monthly spend by The estimates therefore do not represent total gambling expenditure for the year, which would include amounts from higher and lower spend months, and expenditure on activities where participation was less than monthly.
Table 5. Figure 5. They also accounted for the majority of money spent on instant scratch tickets and bingo. Non-problem gamblers and those with problems each accounted for around half of keno and poker expenditure. Expenditure may not add to totals due to missing PGSI values for some participants. The overall pattern was one where higher risk groups spent more of their total regular gambling outlay on EGMs, race betting, sports betting, and casino table games and less on lotteries and instant scratch tickets.
Turning now to the perspective of individuals' spending, within each risk group, Table 5. Note that mean expenditure estimates for casino table games, bingo, private betting and poker were unreliable across most risk groups. This was because of small participant numbers within each risk group and the large variations in the expenditure they reported. While their means are provided, those marked as unreliable were not interpreted.
The table shows that average gambling expenditure was higher for adults in higher risk groups. Low-risk, moderate-risk and problem gamblers each spent substantially more on average on EGMs and race betting than on other products. While all activities saw a higher spend among problem gamblers, what was also apparent was that the strength of relationship between expenditure and gambler risk status varied widely across products.
Lottery, keno and instant scratch ticket expenditure showed the weakest rise across risk groups, with problem gambling participants spending twice as much on average as those without problems. EGM expenditure showed a much steeper rise, with problem gamblers spending five times as much as non-problem gamblers. Race and particularly sports betting expenditure showed an exponential rise across risk groups, with expenditure doubling between non-problem gamblers and moderate risk participants, and doubling or tripling again for problem gambling participants.
Non-problem gamblers who participated in any given activity spent the majority or close to the majority of their total personal gambling outlay on that activity. Private betting, keno and instant scratch tickets attracted much less. These findings are of course related to the findings presented earlier see Table 4.
The figure shows that while higher risk gamblers generally spent more than lower risk gamblers on all the activities they participated in, those who participated in certain activities were likely to spend much more, on the activity and overall, than higher risk gamblers who participated in other activities. For instance, higher risk gamblers who regularly participated in instant scratch tickets spent the least, on this activity and overall.
Together these findings illustrate the importance of considering gamblers' overall gambling outlay, not just their expenditure on a single product, when considering links between expenditure and problem gambling risk status. Higher risk gamblers are likely to spend more on gambling overall - particularly those attracted to EGMs, race and sports betting - and to spread their outlay over a range of activities rather than a single activity.
Lower risk gamblers spend less overall and on fewer products. This chapter presents gambling expenditure in the context of household budgets, and explores the impact of gambling expenditure on households of different income levels. Gambling expenditure is compared to spending on two essential consumable groups, groceries and utilities. Expenditure on these three groups is compared and examined as a proportion of the combined disposable income of all household members in homes containing a gambler.
Expenditure patterns are examined across five household income quintiles ranging from low income to high income households, and also across risk groups. Rates of household financial stress are also compared across risk groups. Details of variables used are provided in Appendix C. Gamblers' households are the units of observation in this subsection, meaning that income refers to the sum of all household members' disposable incomes in homes containing a gambler.
Gambling, grocery and utility expenditure likewise refer to the sum of all members' expenditure in homes containing a gambler. Table 6. The mean number of gamblers per household was less in lower income households, reflecting their having a smaller average number of adults. Figure 6. Compared to expenditure on essential consumables, gambling accounted for a similar proportion of disposable income as utility bills across most households. Groceries accounted for four to six times as much. Notes: Values are based on weighted data and uncapped expenditure at a household level.
Annual income and expenditure data are presented. Individuals' expenditure on gambling was further compared to the total disposable income brought into their household by all members, by risk group membership. The pattern of lower income households spending a higher proportion of household income on gambling was even stronger when a member was a higher risk gambler Figure 6. A remarkable finding was the relative impact that problem gambling had on households with different income levels.
Notes: Values based on weighted data and capped expenditure at a participant level. All household members aged 15 or above were asked whether they had experienced range of stressful events in the past year, such as going without meals or being unable to pay bills on time, due to a shortage of money. As financial stress may be experienced differently by different household members, these answers were combined to show whether any household member had experienced these events.
Rates of household financial stress were compared across gambling risk groups to explore the relationship between gambling-related problems and household financial wellbeing. It is evident that households containing gamblers who had problems experienced a much higher proportion of events than those of non-gamblers. Conversely, a lower proportion of non-problem gamblers' households experienced stressful financial events than those of non-gamblers.
Risky gambling behaviour, but not gambling participation in and of itself, was associated with a higher likelihood of household members reporting any stressful financial event. Most common to all risk groups were the experiences of being unable to pay electricity, gas or telephone bills on time, and needing to ask friends or family for financial help. Around one in five non-problem gamblers' households experienced these events, increasing across risk groups to one half of problem gamblers' households asking for help.
Following the same pattern, a quarter of households containing problem gamblers were unable to pay the mortgage or rent on time, and went without meals - events experienced in less than one in 10 non-problem gamblers' households. The findings show that problematic gambling behaviour is strongly connected to the financial wellbeing of households. Does not include alcohol or tobacco. The new gambling questions included in the HILDA survey have enabled detailed analysis of regular gambling activity in Australia for the first time.
This report has presented a compilation of statistics, taking the approach of describing the characteristics of regular gamblers and their gambling expenditure, describing the degree to which they experience gambling-related problems, and relating this to household income, expenditure, and financial stress. The format and style has followed that used in prior prevalence studies, such that it is intended as a resource for policy makers and researchers.
Clearly, much more detailed research using this new data source is possible, and in the future, this can be extended with longitudinal gambling research. The research presented here has nevertheless highlighted the potential risks to households of gambling behaviours, and also the ways in which the characteristics of regular gamblers, and those participating in particular gambling activities, compare to the Australian population.
This information is important in advancing our understanding of gambling activity in Australia. Table 7. Around two-thirds of past-year lottery participants were represented, indicating that most buy tickets on a regular basis. Reference notations in table. Reference acronyms. Sources: a Dowling et al. These are the only surveys to provide monthly participation statistics, and cover the smallest Australian jurisdictions. They nevertheless provide some points of comparison with the national monthly participation rates derived from the HILDA Survey.
Notes: na - not available. These were the only Australian surveys to provide mean gambling expenditure statistics at the time of writing. As would be expected, the HILDA Survey estimates, which reflect the mean expenditure of regular gamblers, are much higher than the estimates from these two studies, which reflect the mean expenditure of those who gambled at least once in the past year.
All values expressed in dollars. The total expenditure figures reported by industry are much higher overall than the estimates derived from the self-report surveys. A contributing factor is that the industry figures reflect the total past-year expenditure of all gamblers in the respective jurisdictions including tourists, whereas the Tasmanian and ACT survey figures reflect the sum of resident gamblers' typical expenditure in the past year.
The surveys therefore exclude amounts from non-residents as well as untypically high spend events or periods on each activity. The HILDA Survey figure is even further limited to the past-year expenditure of regular resident gamblers on activities that they spent money on in a typical month. The amount gambled using overseas operators is also unknown, further limiting comparisons between Australian industry and gambler expenditure.
At the activity level, all three survey-based expenditure estimates for lotteries and instant scratch tickets are much higher than the figures reported by industry, whereas the estimates for race betting, EGMs and casino table games are much lower.
In the case of lotteries and instant scratch tickets, it is clear that people over-estimate their expenditure. In the case of race betting, EGMs and casino table games, the difference is likely explained by a combination of "untypical" or unplanned over-expenditure, the expenditure of infrequent gamblers, and underestimations of expenditure by survey participants.
HILDA values based on weighted data and capped expenditure. This is around twice the rate reported in most recent gambling studies. The PGSI rates derived from the HILDA Survey therefore include people who may not have gambled in , but nevertheless reported experiencing harms in associated with their prior gambling behaviour.
This is around twice the rate among past-year gamblers reported in recent Australian surveys. This is because people with gambling problems participate more regularly than people without problems. The authors would like to thank all those colleagues who contributed to creating gambling questions for the HILDA survey and for their input into this report.
In particular, we would like to thank:. The findings and views reported in this paper, however, are those of the authors and should not be attributed to either DSS or the Melbourne Institute. As well, the views expressed may not reflect those of the Australian Institute of Family Studies or the Australian Government. Armstrong, A. Gambling activity in Australia. Electronic gambling machines are a high-intensity form of gambling and the most harmful form of gambling available in Australia.
This study examined trends in gambling activity between the two Australian Productivity Commission inquiries. Copyright information. The Australian Institute of Family Studies acknowledges the traditional country throughout Australia on which we gather, live, work and stand. We acknowledge all traditional custodians, their Elders past, present and emerging and we pay our respects to their continuing connection to their culture, community, land, sea and rivers. Gambling activity in Australia Gambling activity in Australia.
Andrew Armstrong Megan Carroll. Research Report — November Read full publication. View as a PDF. Scroll down. Executive Summary This report provides an overview of gambling activity in Australia in , with respect to participation, expenditure, and problems among regular gamblers. Read the publication. Glossary Term Description Bingo A game in which players mark off numbers on cards as the numbers are drawn randomly, the winner being the first person to mark off all their numbers.
Casino table games Casino games played at a table including roulette, craps and card games such as black jack and baccarat. Tables games usually involve a dealer and participants wager on the outcome of the game. Conversely, by definition, it is gross profit or gross winnings due to the operators of each particular gambling activity. EGMs usually have three or more computer-simulated reels which "spin" when a button is pushed. When winning symbols line up a prize is awarded.
Equivalised household disposable income The total income of a household, after personal income tax and Medicare levy deductions, that is available for spending or saving, divided by the number of household members converted into equalised adults using the OECD equivalence scale. Gambling The placement of a wager or bet on the outcome of a future uncertain event.
Participation may occur online or offline. The statistics presented in this publication include but are not limited to legalised regulated gambling activities operated by Australian businesses. They include for instance, private betting and in-play sports betting on offshore sites.
Gambling problems Gambling problems are indicated by endorsing one or more items on the Problem Gambling Severity Index. The items include gambling behaviours that either caused or put people at risk of problems.
Grocery expenditure Total household expenditure on food, cleaning products, pet food and personal care products. Instant scratch tickets Commonly known as "scratchies", where a player scratches a coating off the ticket to identify whether the ticket is a winner. Keno Keno is a rapid-draw game where a player gambles that their chosen numbers match any of the 20 numbers randomly selected from a group of 80 numbers via a computer system or a ball-draw device.
Lotto is a game where a player selects any six numbers from 1 to 45 in anticipation that those numbers will be among eight numbered balls, randomly drawn from a ball-draw device containing 45 balls numbered from 1 to The first six of the eight balls drawn are known as the "winning numbers" and the last two balls are called "supplementary numbers".
Lotteries may also include less defined activities which broadly involve the purchase of a ticket, a draw and a prize. Private betting This may include unregulated informal betting on games such as cards or mah-jong, or other agreed-upon outcomes, often with friends or family. Poker Poker refers to a group of card games in which the winner of each hand is determined according to the combinations of players' cards, at least some of which remain hidden until the end of the hand.
Race betting Wagering on the outcome of horse and greyhound races, excluding all sweeps. Regular gamblers Adults who spent money on one or more gambling activities in a typical month of The indexes are based on information from the five-yearly Census.
Sports betting Wagering on local, national or international sporting activities other than horse and greyhound racing. Significant difference statistical A difference that is highly unlikely due to chance. Utility expenditure Total household expenditure on electricity bills, gas bills and other heating fuel such as firewood and heating oil.
Does not include water, telephone or internet bills. Weighted data Data collected from survey participants are adjusted to represent the population from which the sample was drawn. Back to the top of section. Key Findings.
They are referred to here as regular gamblers. Among the 6. Compared to the Australian adult population, regular gambling participants were substantially over-represented among males i. There were wide-ranging sociodemographic differences between those who gambled regularly on each activity and the Australian adult population. Chapter 3: Expenditure Typical monthly expenditure by the 6. Gamblers generally spent around half their overall gambling outlay on a single product.
Mean expenditure was significantly higher than average among gamblers who were male, had completed schooling no further than year 10, were employed full-time, single, and lived with multiple adults. It was lower among gamblers who had a university degree, and lived in a house with children. That is, their gambling behaviour caused or put them at risk of gambling problems. Much higher proportions of low-risk, moderate-risk and problem gamblers participated in EGMs, race betting, and sports betting, compared to non-problem gamblers.
Compared to non-problem gamblers, those who experienced problems were over-represented among people who were male, aged 18 to 29, Indigenous, were unemployed, or not employed excluding students and retirees , single, renting, lived in a low socioeconomic area, had a low income, and drew their main source of income from welfare payments. They were under-represented among those who owned their own home, retirees, university graduates, and those who drew their main source of income from superannuation or investments.
Chapter 5: Gambling problems and expenditure Gamblers who had problems i. Regular gamblers' mean expenditure was higher among adults in higher risk groups. The strength of the relationship between expenditure and gambler risk status varied markedly across products. Lottery, keno and instant scratch ticket expenditure had the weakest connection. Race betting, EGMs and particularly sports betting expenditure had the strongest. Higher risk gamblers were likely to spend more on gambling overall, and spread their outlay over a range of activities rather than a single activity.
Lower risk gamblers spent less overall and on fewer products. Higher risk gamblers spent greater proportions of their household's disposable income on gambling. Households containing higher risk gamblers experienced a much larger proportion of stressful financial events than those containing non-problem gamblers.
The most common were an inability to pay electricity, gas or telephone bills on time, and needing to ask friends or family for financial help. Introduction Background Gambling is a common activity in Australia. Overview of study design Sample and response The HILDA Survey commenced in with a nationally-representative sample of Australian households residents in private dwellings.
Table 1. How much per month? Now thinking about the last 12 months … Table 1. Have you needed to gamble with larger amounts of money to get the same feeling of excitement? When you gambled, did you go back another day to try and win back the money you lost? Have you borrowed money or sold anything to get money to gamble? Have you felt that you might have a problem with gambling? Has gambling caused you any health problems, including stress or anxiety? Have people criticized your betting or told you that you had a gambling problem, regardless of whether or not you thought it was true?
Has your gambling caused any financial problems for you or your household? Have you felt guilty about the way you gamble or what happens when you gamble? Each participant was assigned a gambling risk state according to the following risk thresholds: Table 1.
Statistical analysis The bulk of the report presents basic descriptive statistics, such as means and percentage distributions. Weighting In order to generalise findings to the Australian population, HILDA Survey data was weighted to reflect the probability of households and individuals being selected in the complex-cross sectional survey. Gambling participation. Gambling participation Introduction This chapter presents estimates of the prevalence of Australian adults aged 18 years or over who participated in one or more of 10 gambling activities in a typical month of Among these 6.
Number of gambling activities Table 2. Sociodemographic characteristics of regular gamblers by activity Table 2. Gambling expenditure. Gambling expenditure Introduction This chapter presents HILDA survey-based estimates of typical past-year expenditure by regular gamblers in , derived from self-reported, typical monthly spends.
Key findings Typical monthly expenditure by the 6. Gamblers generally spent around half of their overall gambling outlay on a single product. Mean expenditure was otherwise similar between gamblers with different sociodemographic characteristics, including those with low and high incomes and those whose main source of income was either a wage or welfare payment. National gambling expenditure Table 3. See Appendix A for a comparison between these survey-based estimates and actual 'known' expenditure reported by industry National gambling expenditure by sociodemographic characteristics Table 3.
National gambling expenditure on each activity by sociodemographic characteristics Table 3. The sociodemographic groups that spent the most on each of the five activities were the same as those for overall expenditure, with a few exceptions: Females spent more than males on instant scratch tickets. People in lower income groups spent more on instant scratch tickets and EGMs than those with higher incomes.
Those aged spent more on sports betting compared to other age groups. Gambling problems and participation. Key findings Participation: 7. This included 1. Adults in higher risk groups participated in a higher number of activities. Sociodemographic characteristics: Across the various activities, gamblers who experienced problems were relatively similar to each other in terms of their characteristics.
Those who did not experience problems, viewed by activity, had more distinct profiles. Compared to non-problem gamblers, those who experienced problems were significantly over-represented among people who were male, aged , Indigenous, unemployed or not employed excluding retirees and full-time students , single, renting, people who lived in a low socioeconomic area, had a low income, and drew their main source of income from welfare payments. They were under-represented among those who owned their own home, retirees, and university graduates.
Prevalence of gambling problems Table 4. Number of activities by risk group Table 4. Number and proportion of activity participants by risk group Table 4. Risk group activity participation rates Table 4. Sociodemographic characteristics of risk groups Table 4. Sociodemographic characteristics of risk groups by activity This subsection provides a brief sociodemographic comparison of non-problem gamblers and those with problems among those who participated in lotteries, instant scratch tickets, EGMs, race betting or sports betting.
These tables are largely provided for reference, and so only limited analysis is presented below, highlighting some key observations: Lotteries: Compared to non-problem lottery participants, a higher proportion of participants who experienced problems were male, had a certificate or diploma-level qualification, were not employed, single, lived in a home they rented, lived in a low socioeconomic area, and had a low income Table 4.
Gambling problems and expenditure. Expenditure per gambler was higher among those in higher risk groups. The strength of relationship between expenditure and gambler risk status varied markedly across products. Race betting, EGMs and particularly sports betting expenditure had a much stronger connection with risk.
National gambling expenditure by risk group Table 5. Gambling and the household budget. Gambling and the household budget Introduction This chapter presents gambling expenditure in the context of household budgets, and explores the impact of gambling expenditure on households of different income levels. Key findings Gamblers in the lowest income quintile households spent a much greater proportion of their household incomes on gambling compared to those in the highest income households Higher risk gamblers within each household income quintile spent greater proportions of the household's disposable income on gambling.
Households containing higher risk gamblers experienced a much higher rate of stressful financial events than those of lower risk gamblers. Gambling expenditure as a proportion of household disposable income Gamblers' households are the units of observation in this subsection, meaning that income refers to the sum of all household members' disposable incomes in homes containing a gambler. Financial stress All household members aged 15 or above were asked whether they had experienced range of stressful events in the past year, such as going without meals or being unable to pay bills on time, due to a shortage of money.
Conclusion The new gambling questions included in the HILDA survey have enabled detailed analysis of regular gambling activity in Australia for the first time. Participation Table 7. Expenditure Table 7.
This study examined trends in higher casino venice airport adults in higher. Statistical analysis The bulk of the report presents basic descriptive on each activity and the activities operated by Australian businesses. What people are saying about weighted data and uncapped expenditure in recent Australian surveys. Prevalence of gambling problems Table. Those aged spent more on participated in a higher number than people without problems. Number of activities by risk rate reported in most recent. HILDA values based on weighted group Table 4. Introduction Background Gambling is a on food, cleaning products, pet. A remarkable finding was the relative impact that problem gambling had on households with different. Psychological therapies can also address sports betting expenditure had the.Public concern over the impact of gambling on Australian society prompted the the impact of problem gambling on families and communities;; Internet gambling; the Government would introduce legislation to prohibit Australian gambling. In the online world, the proportion of problem gambling is three times in cooperation with Australian internet service providers to block illegal. If you believe a prohibited gambling activity is being offered or advertised over the internet to people in Australia, you can complain to the Australian.