I never caught the signal the dealer used but it was effective as all the guys who normally collect boxes from the tables show up out of nowhere and removed him from the table like they were taking out the trash. Table broke up so they could clean, dealer showered and put on a new uniform and I saw her on the floor again a few hours later. I work at a casino in New Zealand. Almost all baccarat dealers at my casino are Asian so I had to deal to her every night for 10 days.
I was pit boss at the time. A lady playing baccarat starts complaining that one of her shoes is missing, she's slipped them off while playing and now can't find one of them. So we call surveillance to see if they might find what has happened to it. Shortly afterwards, a security guard brings back the shoe in a plastic bag. Although differences in gambling addiction were assessed for gaming versus non-gaming workers, more specific job information e.
Stedham and Mitchell  found that sexual harassment from co-workers and casino management may be a significant occupational health hazard for female casino workers and that dealers may be most susceptible to harassment see Table 2. Further, employees that experience work-related sexual harrassment were less satisfied with their jobs, work, and supervisor, as well as less committed to the organization, though they were not more likely to quit. This suggests that these workers may feel obligated to tolerate harassing behavior and perceive it as part of the job.
A second study by Jones and Chandler  focused exclusively on female casino workers and noted that they may be at risk for unique occupational exposures and subsequent adverse effects. The authors included descriptive results suggesting that female casino workers may be subject to exposures unique to traditionally female casino jobs, such as hotel cleaning and cocktail serving.
These jobs may promote exposure to chemicals and awkward, prolonged work postures resulting in respiratory illness and musculoskeletal pain, respectively. Five of the 11 studies in our review explicitly noted voluntary casino management participation in coordinating the research  ,  ,  — . Two of the ETS studies reviewed one continental U. Generally, among the studies reviewed, most PM2. The two problem gambling studies we reviewed involved cooperation with management and these studies were funded by the casinos in which they were conducted  , .
One study in our review that investigated sexual harassment involved casino management assistance  , while our sole qualitative study of occupational safety issues among female casino workers did not involve casino management . Findings from this narrative review reveal that, by far, the most closely studied occupational health issue among U.
In fact, seven of the 11 articles that were captured through the review process focused on ETS. All articles concluded that ETS in casinos increased respirable particulate levels and three of these articles verified ETS exposure with biological methods of exposure assessment. However, our results show that, in general, a more detailed assessment of worker exposure to ETS is needed than what exists in the literature to date.
For example, cotinine, used by only three of the seven ETS studies, may provide an important assessment of biological exposure to ETS, in addition to area and breathing zone sampling. Furthermore, the assessment of tobacco incineration constituents, such as polyromantic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, and aldehydes, was conducted by only one study in our review. These ETS constituents, as well as associated worker respiratory health impacts, may help refine assessment of worker exposures to ETS.
Finally, none of the studies identified by our review examined worker respiratory health through pulmonary function testing, yet such testing may be useful in detecting undiagnosed lung disease and poor lung function. The focus of many of our reviewed studies on ETS in the casino work environment may reflect the fact that smoking bans in public places have not been issued on a federal level but are the purview of state and local jurisdictions.
In many instances, smoking bans that apply to other public places or workplaces may exclude casinos or gaming venues  , due to an argument that mandating non-smoking facilities may harm revenues . Further, tribal casinos are not subject to the prevailing smoking laws or regulations in the surrounding areas and may allow or restrict smoking at their discretion. As casinos across the country find ways to circumvent these regulations, whether by creating smoking terraces, cigar lounges, or investing in supplemental ventilation that may enable indoor smoking sections  , a well-founded knowledge of the effects of these practices on the workers and other patrons is crucial for creating policies that protect workers and the public.
Our review of the literature suggests that, in some cases, overflow of second hand smoke from the smoking section to non-smoking sections may occur, illustrating the importance of assessing exposure and associated health impacts among casino workers in various areas of the casino to ensure that casinos' responses to non-smoking regulations are actually effective. Two of the articles in our review focused on risk behaviors and gambling disorders among casino workers  , .
Though the studies on the topic are few in number, the results mirror findings from international studies that found that casino workers are more likely to abuse alcohol, smoke tobacco, and be pathological gamblers than the general population . The reasons for this heightened prevalence have not been delineated in the U. Thus, exposure to risk behaviors, as an inherent part of casino work, may be considered an occupational exposure to be assessed and mitigated. Future studies may benefit from quantifying worker exposure to problem gambling, variation in problem gambling exposure among casino job types, and subsequent impacts on worker behavior.
Two articles in the review focused on psychosocial stressors and found that women and table game dealers were most impacted by psychosocial stress as an occupational hazard  , . Findings pertaining to harassment highlighted that for women in particular, casino jobs may be sexualized.
While one article found that workers in casinos are no more likely to perceive workplace sexual harassment than other workers, this may be due in part to workers' perception that harassment is expected due to the sexualized nature of their jobs .
Despite this, workers who perceived sexual harassment from coworkers were less satisfied with their jobs, believed managers were ineffective and unfair, and did not feel their employer cared about their well-being. They were not, however, more likely to leave their jobs, indicating that these workers may not feel they have other options . It should be noted that this study only probed for harassment initiated by coworkers rather than patrons, which is another potential source of harassment that workers may face.
Another U. These studies suggest that future research on casino workers should include sexual harassment measures from both coworkers and clients, quantify the level of harassment experienced from each source, and examine resultant worker effects from each source. Although ergonomics and noise exposure are commonly documented in occupational safety research in other industries, no U. S, casino workers. Evidence from international research suggests that these hazards are problematic for worker health in the casino environment .
Furthermore, gaming workers from other countries have cited exposure to poor ergonomics; chemical hazards e. Also, casino workers in other countries have complained of pain in the lower back, shoulder, joint, neck and head, hearing loss; eye strain; respiratory and reproductive issues; and ill-health and injuries .
Only one study was found that assessed physical symptoms experienced by workers, which found that women casino workers experienced back strain, sore feet, and knee problems . No studies were found that quantified or described common injuries e. Further more, no studies examined the impact of psychosocial stressors on worker health such as unpredictable, unstable, or long work hours.
These missing exposures and related injuries are likely present in U. The findings from this review indicate that an assessment of U. Other research on job satisfaction of casino dealers has revealed that characteristics of the work environment such as distrustful supervisor relationships, a high supervisor-to-employee ratio, low job security, and low autonomy conspired to create low job satisfaction . Workers in lower income communities may be vulnerable to adverse effects from job hazards as they may feel they have few job options and are willing to take on more risky and less desirable jobs.
Future research must also determine if these casino jobs add true value to the communities in which they are situated. For example, the National Opinion Research Center  found that when casinos entered a community, per capita income tended to stay the same despite the increased jobs brought by the casino. This finding indicated that the jobs brought to the community were not necessarily better and therefore left no improvement in the standard of living.
Access to the casino workforce seems to be the key issue in future studies of casino worker health and safety. Many studies in our review evaluated respiratory hazards discreetly in casinos, while few involved casino management. Both studies that looked at problem gambling among casino workers involved industry support  , . As over half of the studies in our review did not work with casinos to perform research this may suggest that casinos are reluctant to work with researchers.
Because management cooperation is crucial to worker access and in-depth exposure assessment, bridging this gap of trust—e. Our review demonstrates the need for additional studies that focus on female casino workers. Many women in the casino workforce are non-English speaking immigrant Latinos, a group with a heightened rate of occupational injury .
As such, female casino workers may be at risk for exposure and injury while on the job. Furthermore, many casino jobs are dominated by females, such as beverage servers and cleaning staff, which may have unique hazards. Our results show, in particular, that casino hotel cleaning staff may be subject to fast-paced schedules with limited breaks, low pay, and tasks that may have an adverse impact on musculoskeletal and respiratory health.
Furthermore, beverage servers may be subject to harassment from both patrons and casino co-workers and may experience musculoskeletal issues related to mandates to wear high heel shoes during long shifts with constant standing and walking .
Findings from this review also indicate that job type may impact the risk of worker exposure to specific casino related hazards. Furthermore, the study we reviewed pertaining to sexual harassment from co-workers  revealed that female dealers may be most susceptible. In addition, the qualitative study we reviewed  suggested female cleaning workers may experience job-specific hazards unique to cleaning. However, the two studies we reviewed on problem gambling  ,  yielded no associations between workers directly involved with gaming and problem gambling.
These findings demonstrate a need for further identification and quantification of job-specific exposures and associated worker effects. This study reports a narrative review of articles retained by our search, which, due to a non-statistical approach to results summary, may make our findings subject to bias. Furthermore, it may be possible that misleading titles and abstracts may have led to missed articles that were relevant.
However, the number of missed or eliminated relevant articles is likely minimal, as subsequent topic searches revealed only one additional article. We found a surprising paucity of articles related to the occupational safety of U. This lack of extant literature underscores the importantce future studies examining the occupational health and safety of U. Although our literature search did reveal a number of articles about non-U.
Nonetheless, future studies comparing U. Despite the limitations of this study, our narrative review of occupational hazards experienced by U. Additional research is needed in order to systematically characterize occupational hazards, assess exposure levels, and assess the resultant health impacts on U. Indeed, prominent gaps in the U. Research on casino worker risk behaviors that may be motivated by aspects of the work environment e. The U. Yet, with cooperation between the industry and researchers, casino worker health and safety may be better understood and improved.
Conflict of interest: All authors declare no conflicts of interest in this paper. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Oct John C. Jennifer E. Kathleen Tracy. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Mar 5; Accepted Sep Abstract We conducted a narrative literature review of U. Keywords: casino workers, narrative review, occupational health. Introduction Casino gambling has become a ubiquitous form of entertainment and revenue for individual states in the United States.
Methods 2. Study selection Studies were initially selected based on the following criteria: 1 focused on workers, 2 provided information pertaining to exposures present in the occupational environment e. Search strategy Search strategies were developed in collaboration with a research librarian and included terms related to the concepts of casino workers and occupational health and safety.
Table 1. Search terms for literature review. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Results 3. Literature search results The 11 articles retained from our literature review fell into three broad categories of casino-related occupational hazards: 1 those pertaining to environmental tobacco smoke seven publications , 2 those pertaining to casino worker risk behaviors two publications , and 3 those pertaining to psychosocial stressors two publications.
Table 2. Casino worker health research studies in the U. Personal breathing zone air samples were collected on a convenience sample of casino dealers, including who provided cotinine urine samples each day, pre- and post-shift. Las Vegas dealers High level of dealer exposure to ETS and associated constituents of tobacco combustion. Increase in continue throughout shift. Pre and post smoking ban comparisons made via PM2. Levels of toxins likely to adversely impact respiratory health of workers and patrons.
Measure cotinine in patron urine. Measure RSPs from breathing zone of patrons. Cotinine in urine also increases due to smoking. Breathing zone sampling and area sampling for nicotine vapors and respirable dust. Pre and post shift cotinine in urine and serum. Sampling via personal monitors on patrons. Comparison among small, medium, and large casinos by number of slot machines in terms of PM2.
Lack of smoking barriers had no impact on PM2. Complete separation lessened exposure to outdoor levels while partial separation lessened PM2. Shaffer Work behaviors Problem and patho-logical gambling, Problem drinking, Smoking Identify prevalence of gambling problems, alcohol problems, and tobacco use among casino employees, as well as associations with depression.
Survey distributed to workers at multiple sites. Casino Inc. Tenure is closely related to pathological gambling. Shaffer Work behaviors Problem gambling Problem drinking Prospectively examine casino employees' gambling and alcohol usage.
Prospective cohort study with 3 repeated measures 1 per year on full-time employees: gambling and drinking screening and depression questionnaire. Females were more prone to reversing problem drinking to less severe levels than males; no difference in sexes in problem gambling reduction. Descriptive qualitative study with semi-structured open ended interview Reno, NV female casino employees Female casino workers experience a wide array of physical, psychosocial and respiratory exposures; also exposure to risk behaviors, such as drug, alcohol and gambling addictions.
Questionnaires distributed on-site to assess job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and voluntary turnover. Reno, NV casino employees Sexual harassment at similar rates to other industries. Harassed employees were less satisfied with jobs and work itself, less satisfied with supervision, and less committed to the organization. Sexually harassed workers tended to be younger, Caucasian, less experienced in the gaming industry, and work as dealers.
Casino worker risk behaviors Two studies identified by our review  ,  focused on casino worker risk behaviors, including problem gambling and problem drinking see Table 2. Physical and psychosocial stressors Stedham and Mitchell  found that sexual harassment from co-workers and casino management may be a significant occupational health hazard for female casino workers and that dealers may be most susceptible to harassment see Table 2.
Discussion Findings from this narrative review reveal that, by far, the most closely studied occupational health issue among U. Limitations and summary This study reports a narrative review of articles retained by our search, which, due to a non-statistical approach to results summary, may make our findings subject to bias. Footnotes Conflict of interest: All authors declare no conflicts of interest in this paper.
References 1. Problem and pathological gambling in a sample of casino patrons. J Gamb Stud.
You must ensure that your hair is kept short, neat, and well groomed and your skin clear and well moisturised. This goes without saying. You need to be smiley, friendly and professional at all times. Whilst you may get comments from users of the casino, it is your job to remain completely unflappable at all times. Ensure you have a good level of the language that you will be working in, and remember that whilst the customer is always right , you need to be firm, yet fair in your approach.
No, we do not mean in the physical sense, but rather that you need to be prepared to work awkward hours. Like a traditional casino, online casinos see a surge in popularity during the evening hours. You should be prepared to work shifts and to be available during the night, or at least, very late at night. The world of online casinos and live casinos is one that will continue to grow in popularity and securing a job as a live dealer could be a great career move. Just remember that if you decide to go for it, looking the part, sounding the part and being flexible with your working hours are all prerequisites of the role.
Home Advertising Contact. Remember Me. Lost your password? The combat measures began before you even sat down. The game behind the game of blackjack involves getting you to the table and keeping you there. What you may not know is that it also involves making sure your chances for winning are minimized, while your commitment to the idea of winning is maximized. The real tricksters are usually not the dealers themselves.
They are the casinos that hire them, train them, and monitor them. Dealers mostly just want to get good tips, not get fired, and maybe have some fun along the way. She was happy to offer her input into how dealers think and casinos operate. This is not a secret. This is math. Sometimes casinos will even make cards with basic strategy available at the table.
But they will never insist you follow it. They still give really bad advice. Why is that? Sound decisions decrease their bottom line. Likewise, dealers are encouraged to keep play moving. More rounds played per hour means more money for the casino. Forcing you to make a quick decision is often just as bad as suggesting you make a wrong one.
Dealers are dedicated to the veneer that the casino has created—that this is a happy place where winning is more than possible. When you win big, they want a share of the riches. Either way, it just decreases the chance of a winning night. What if business people kept plying you with alcohol while you were in the midst of making financial decisions like buying a home or car?
That is the essence of what the casino is doing when they offer you free drinks at the table. They know you will be inclined to make bad decisions. Walk 20 feet to the bar and the drinks are full price.
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