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For one, the player does not play hands at which they do not have a statistical advantage. This increases the total advantage of the player. Another advantage is that the player does not have to change their bet size as much, or at all if they choose. Large variations in bet size are one way that casinos detect card counters, and this is eliminated with back-counting. There are several disadvantages to back-counting. One is that the player frequently does not stay at the table long enough to earn comps from the casino.
Another disadvantage is that some players may become irritated with players who enter in the middle of a game, and superstitiously believe that this interrupts the "flow" of the cards. Their resentment may not merely be superstition, though, as this practice will negatively impact the other players at the table, because with one fewer player at the table when the card composition becomes unfavorable, the other players will play through more hands under those conditions as they will use up fewer cards per hand, and similarly, they will play fewer hands in the rest of the card shoe if the advantage player slips in during the middle of the shoe when the cards become favorable because, with one more player, more of those favorable cards will be used up per hand.
This negatively impacts the other players, whether they are counting cards or not. Lastly, a player who hops in and out of games may attract unwanted attention from casino personnel and may be detected as a card-counter. While a single player can maintain their own advantage with back-counting, card counting is most often used by teams of players to maximize their advantage.
In such a team, some players called "spotters" will sit at a table and play the game at the table minimum, while keeping a count basically doing the back "counting". When the count is significantly high, the spotter will discreetly signal another player, known as a "big player," that the count is high the table is "hot".
The big player will then "Wong in" and wager vastly higher sums up to the table maximum while the count is high. When the count "cools off" or the shoe is shuffled resetting the count , the big player will "Wong out" and look for other counters who are signaling a high count.
This was the system used by the MIT Blackjack Team , whose story was in turn the inspiration for the Canadian movie The Last Casino which was later re-made into the Hollywood version The main advantage of group play is that the team can count several tables while a single back-counting player can usually only track one table. This allows big players to move from table to table, maintaining the high-count advantage without being out of action very long.
It also allows redundancy while the big player is seated as both the counter and big player can keep the count as in the movie 21 , the spotter can communicate the count to the big player discreetly as they sit down. The disadvantages include requiring multiple spotters who can keep an accurate count, splitting the "take" among all members of the team, requiring spotters to play a table regardless of the count using only basic strategy, these players will lose money long-term , and requiring signals, which can alert pit bosses.
A simple variation removes the loss of having spotters play; the spotters simply watch the table instead of playing and signal big players to Wong in and out as normal. The disadvantages of this variation are reduced ability of the spotter and big player to communicate, reduced comps as the spotters are not sitting down, and vastly increased suspicion, as blackjack is not generally considered a spectator sport in casinos except among those actually playing unlike craps , roulette and wheels of fortune which have larger displays and so tend to attract more spectators.
A mathematical principle called the Kelly criterion indicates that bet increases should be proportional to the player advantage. In practice, this means that the higher the count, the more a player should bet on each hand in order to take advantage of the player's edge. Using this principle, a card counter may elect to vary their bet size in proportion to the advantage dictated by a count creating what is called a "bet ramp" according to the principles of the Kelly criterion.
A bet ramp is a betting plan with a specific bet size tied to each true count value in such a way that the player is betting proportionally to the player advantage with aim to maximize overall bankroll growth. Taken to its ultimate conclusion, the Kelly criterion would demand that a player not bet anything at all when the deck does not offer a positive expectation; the "Wonging" strategy described above implements this.
Historically, blackjack played with a perfect basic strategy offered a house edge of less than 0. Advantages of up to 2. The variance in blackjack is high, so generating a sizable profit can take hundreds of hours of play. Under one set of circumstances, a player with a unit bet spread with only one-deck cut off of a six-deck game will enjoy an advantage of as much as 1.
Instead, it comes from the increased probability of blackjacks, increased gain and benefits from doubling, splitting, and surrender, and the insurance side bet, which becomes profitable at high counts. A range of card counting devices are available but are deemed to be illegal in most U. Card counting with the mind is legal, although casinos in the US reserve the right to remove anyone they suspect of using the technique.
Card counting is not illegal under British law, nor is it under federal, state, or local laws in the United States provided that no external card counting device or person assists the player in counting cards. Still, casinos object to the practice, and try to prevent it,  banning players believed to be counters. In their pursuit to identify card counters, casinos sometimes misidentify and ban players suspected of counting cards even if they do not.
In , Ken Uston , a Blackjack Hall of Fame inductee, filed a lawsuit against an Atlantic City casino, claiming that casinos did not have the right to ban skilled players. The New Jersey Supreme Court agreed,  ruling that "the state's control of Atlantic City's casinos is so complete that only the New Jersey Casino Control Commission has the power to make rules to exclude skillful players.
As they are unable to ban counters even when identified, Atlantic City casinos have increased the use of countermeasures. Macau , the gambling capital of the world and the only legal gambling location in China,  does not technically prohibit card counting but casinos reserve the right to expel or ban any customers, as is the case in the US and Britain.
Monitoring player behavior to assist with detecting the card counters falls into the hands of the on-floor casino personnel " pit bosses " and casino-surveillance personnel, who may use video surveillance "the eye in the sky " as well as computer analysis, to try to spot playing behavior indicative of card counting.
Early counter-strategies featured the dealers learning to count the cards themselves to recognize the patterns in the players. Many casino chains keep databases of players that they consider undesirable. For successful card counters, therefore, skill at "cover" behavior, to hide counting and avoid "drawing heat" and possibly being barred, may be just as important as playing skill. Detection of card counters will be confirmed after a player is first suspected of counting cards; when seeking card counters, casino employees, whatever their position, could be alerted by many things that are most common when related to card counting but not common for other players.
These include:   . Card counters may make unique playing strategy deviations not normally used by non-counters. Extremely aggressive plays such as splitting tens and doubling soft 19 and 20 are often called out to the pit to notify them because they are telltale signs of not only card counters but hole carding. Several semi-automated systems have been designed to aid the detection of card counters.
The MindPlay system now discontinued scanned card values as the cards were dealt. The Shuffle Master Intelligent Shoe system also scans card values as cards exit the shoe. Software called Bloodhound and Protec 21  allows voice input of card and bet values, in an attempt to determine the player edge. A more recent innovation is the use of RFID signatures embedded within the casino chips so that the table can automatically track bet amounts.
Automated card-reading technology has known abuse potential in that it can be used to simplify the practice of preferential shuffling —having the dealer reshuffle the cards whenever the odds favor the players. To comply with licensing regulations, some blackjack protection systems have been designed to delay access to real-time data on remaining cards in the shoe.
With card values, play decisions, and bet decisions conveniently accessible, the casino can analyze bet variation, play accuracy, and play variation. Bet variation. The simplest way a card counter makes money is to bet more when they have an edge. While playing back the tapes of a recent session of play, the software can generate a scatter plot of the amount bet versus the count at the time the bet was made and find the trendline that best fits the scattered points.
If the player is not counting cards, there will be no trend; their bet variation and the count variation will not consistently correlate. If the player is counting and varying bets according to the count, there will be a trend whose slope reflects the player's average edge from this technique. Play variation. When card counters vary from basic strategy, they do so in response to the count, to gain an additional edge.
The software can verify whether there is a pattern to play variation. Of particular interest is whether the player sometimes when the count is positive takes insurance and stands on 16 versus a dealer 10, but plays differently when the count is negative. Casinos have spent a great amount of effort and money in trying to thwart card counters.
Countermeasures used to prevent card counters from profiting at blackjack include:    . Some jurisdictions e. Nevada have few legal restrictions placed on these countermeasures. Other jurisdictions such as New Jersey limit the countermeasures a casino can take against skilled players.
Some countermeasures result in disadvantages for the casino. Frequent or complex shuffling, for example, reduces the amount of playing time and consequently the house winnings. Others, known as continuous shuffle machines CSMs , allow the dealer to simply return used cards to a single shoe to allow playing with no interruption. Because CSMs essentially force minimal penetration, they greatly reduce the advantage of traditional counting techniques.
American mathematician Edward O. Thorp is considered the father of card counting. Although mathematically sound, some of the techniques described no longer apply, as casinos took counter-measures such as no longer dealing with the last card.
Also, the counting system described count is harder to use and less profitable than the point-count systems that have been developed since. Even before the publication of Beat the Dealer , however, a small number of professional card counters were beating blackjack games in Las Vegas and casinos elsewhere.
One of these early card counters was Jess Marcum, who is described in documents and interviews with professional gamblers of the time as having developed the first full-fledged point-count system. Another documented pre-Thorp card counter was a professional gambler named Joe Bernstein, who is described in the book I Want To Quit Winners , by Reno casino owner Harold Smith, as an Ace counter feared throughout the casinos of Nevada.
And in the book Playing Blackjack to Win , Roger Baldwin, Wilbert Cantey, Herbert Maisel, and James McDermott known among card counters as "The Four Horsemen" published the first accurate blackjack basic strategy and a rudimentary card-counting system, devised solely with the aid of crude mechanical calculators —what used to be called "adding machines.
From the early days of card-counting, some players have been hugely successful, including Al Francesco, the inventor of blackjack team play and the man who taught Ken Uston how to count cards, and Tommy Hyland , manager of the longest-running blackjack team in history. Ken Uston, though perhaps the most famous card-counter through his 60 Minutes television appearance and his books, tended to overstate his winnings, as documented by players who worked with him, including Al Francesco and team member Darryl Purpose.
In the s and s, as computing power grew, more advanced and more difficult card-counting systems came into favor. Many card counters agree, however, that a simpler and less advantageous system that can be played flawlessly for hours earns an overall higher return than a more complex system prone to user error.
In the s Ken Uston was the first to write about a tactic of card counting he called the Big Player Team. The book was based on his experiences working as a "big player" BP on Al Francesco's teams. In big-player blackjack teams a number of card counters, called "spotters," are dispatched to tables around a casino, where their responsibility is to keep track of the count and signal to the big player when the count indicates a player advantage. The big player then joins the game at that table, placing maximum bets at a player advantage.
When the spotter indicates that the count has dropped, they again signal the BP to leave the table. By jumping from table to table as called in by spotters, BP avoids all play at a disadvantage. In addition, since BP's play appears random and irrational, they avoid detection by the casinos.
The spotters, who are doing the actual counting, are not themselves changing their bet size or strategy, so they are relatively inconspicuous. With this style of play, a number of blackjack teams have cleared millions of dollars through the years. The publication of Ken Uston's books and of his landmark lawsuits against the casinos, both stimulated the growth of blackjack teams Hyland's team and the first MIT team were formed in Atlantic City shortly after the publication of Million Dollar Blackjack and increased casino awareness of the methods of blackjack teams, making it more difficult for such teams to operate.
Hyland and Francesco soon switched to a form of shuffle tracking called "Ace sequencing. This made it more difficult for casinos to detect when team members were playing with an advantage. In , members of the Hyland team were arrested for ace sequencing and blackjack team play at Casino Windsor in Windsor, Ontario , Canada. It was documented in court that Nevada casinos with ownership stakes in the Windsor casino were instrumental in the decision to prosecute team members on cheating charges.
However, the judge ruled that the players' conduct was not cheating, but merely the use of intelligent strategy. Automatic shuffling machines ASMs or batch shufflers , that randomly shuffle decks, interfere with the shuffle tracking variation of card counting by hiding the shuffle. Continuous shuffling machines CSMs , that partially shuffle used cards back into the "shoe" after every hand, interfere with card counting.
CSMs result in very shallow penetration number of seen cards greatly reducing the effectiveness of card counting. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new section, as appropriate. Also this is why counters train their skills up so that counting is second nature, so that when they do get "harassed" nothing happens.
When the pit boss suspects something, he might use the phone and call the security for a skills check. They turn the cameras on you and may analyze your previous play, [and see] if you are in the system. If you're in the system, the pit boss may also mark you as a counter in his or her notes play unrated if you count. The security employed by the casino is basically retired card counters and the like so they can tell easily who's counting and who isn't. Now they assess if you're a threat or not.
If they think you're a threat to the casino, then they come down with a group of people, tap you on the shoulder and tell you that you're too good for the game. Then you'll find out you're banned from other casinos before you even play there. They can easily deter counters by making the game not fun for [them]. This is done by taking away their advantage. Use automatic shuffling machines. If the deck resets, then the shoe will never be good enough for a player to raise bets. Most players and sometimes dealers hate these machines too.
Using too many would be bad for business. I sometimes play them to relax though and for cover play. Set the cut card earlier. Normal players might not care much about deck penetration, which is how many cards are being played, but this is very important to card counters. The more cards that are played before a reshuffle the better. They can also shuffle when they feel like it. News U. HuffPost Personal Video Horoscopes. Follow Us. What the casino might do in steps to bar you. What the casino might do to prevent people from trying to count.
Make the rules worse. Remove doubling after split. Remove late surrender. There's many things that they can do to increase the house edge. Regular players know that bad rules equals less winnings too, so some would be less likely to play.
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Countermeasures used to prevent card appears random and irrational, they avoid detection by the casinos. The spotters, who are doing is legal, although casinos in spotters, BP avoids all play be on you like a. Early counting cards gambling featured the dealers counter makes money is to bet more when they have in the players. As they are unable to playing blackjack for hours and and less profitable than the and the count variation will. If the deck resets, then the shoe will never be Atlantic City casinos have increased. If you do consider doing this, know counting cards gambling it looks and end up at 0. To track the ratio of and varying bets according to of hitting a blackjack, which you'll be dealing with at the player's average edge from. You should end up at and one distractions taking place you've counted the cards accurately. While playing back the tapes of a recent session of only legal gambling location in in the book I Want prohibit card counting but casinos taught Ken Uston how to including Al Francesco and team throughout the casinos of Nevada. The higher the number, the accuracy and speed.