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Males and females are alike in appearance, and similar to plumage of the female mallard. The grey duck's colouring is darker overall, and the head stripes more pronounced than the female mallard. Grey duck have a white underwing and an iridescent turquoise green speculum on their wing lower right , whereas the mallard speculum is blue or purple.
The blue speculum tends to predominate on hybrids. The shoveler was uncommon last century but there are now around , in New Zealand. The male shoveler is New Zealand's most handsome duck, with variegated plumage, blue-grey head with a white vertical stripe between the eye and bill, a striking reddish-brown breast, and blue wings. The female is more plainly embellished with cryptic brown similar to female mallards and grey ducks.
This may be nature's way of providing camouflage when she is nesting. When the country was first settled, paradise duck were rare. In fact, special paradise duck hunting seasons are necessary to stop large mobs damaging farm paddocks with their grazing. Unusually for ducks, the female paradise shelduck is more eye-catching than the male; females have a pure white head and chestnut-coloured body, while males have a dark grey body and black head.
Paradise shelducks are commonly observed flying in pairs or grazing on pasture. They are very vocal birds, with males giving a characteristic 'zonk zonk', while females make a more shrill 'zeek zeek' while flying or as a warning to intruders. They can often be stalked. Resist the temptation to stand up and look as you approach. Instead, pick a tall object and work you way in close remaining down and out of sight. Paddock shooting over simple homemade decoys also works well. Keep out of sight under a camo net or camouflaged next to a fence line or bushes and keep close to your decoys.
We take them, write some code against their APIs, compile them into our programs, and benefit from a lot of code someone else has written. Libraries and frameworks go a long way towards a development model where we can just pick and choose components and plug them right in.
A: Design patterns are higher level than libraries. Design patterns tell us how to structure classes and objects to solve certain problems and it is our job to adapt those designs to fit our particular application. A: Frameworks and libraries are not design patterns; they provide specific implementations that we link into our code. Sometimes, however, libraries and frameworks make use of design patterns in their implementations.
A: No, but you will learn later about pattern catalogs with lists of patterns that you can apply to your applications. Guru: Ah, this is one of the true misunderstandings of object-oriented development: that by knowing the OO basics we are automatically going to be good at building flexible, reusable, and maintainable systems. Guru: No. As it turns out, constructing OO systems that have these properties is not always obvious and has been discovered only through hard work.
These, sometimes non-obvious, ways of constructing object-oriented systems have been collected Developer: So, by knowing patterns, I can skip the hard work and jump straight to designs that always work? Guru: Yes, to an extent, but remember, design is an art. There will always be tradeoffs. Developer: Principles? You mean beyond abstraction, encapsulation, and Guru: Yes, one of the secrets to creating maintainable OO systems is thinking about how they might change in the future, and these principles address those issues.
You apply them to your specific application. Most patterns and principles address issues of change in software. Patterns provide a shared language that can maximize the value of your communication with other developers. Character is the abstract class for all the other characters King, Queen, Knight, and Troll , while WeaponBehavior is an interface that all weapon behaviors implement.
So all actual characters and weapons are concrete classes. To switch weapons, each character calls the setWeapon method, which is defined in the Character superclass. During a fight the useWeapon method is called on the current weapon set for a given character to inflict great bodily damage on another character.
Which of the following are disadvantages of using subclassing to provide specific Duck behavior? What are some factors that drive change in your applications? Look familiar? Skip to main content. Start your free trial. It started with a simple SimUDuck app. But now we need the ducks to FLY.
But something went horribly wrong Joe thinks about inheritance Code is duplicated across subclasses. Runtime behavior changes are difficult. Hard to gain knowledge of all duck behaviors. Changes can unintentionally affect other ducks.
How about an interface? What would you do if you were Joe? The one constant in software development. Sharpen your pencil. My customers or users decide they want something else, or they want new functionality.
Zeroing in on the problem Design Principle Identify the aspects of your application that vary and separate them from what stays the same. The first of many design principles. Separating what changes from what stays the same. Designing the Duck Behaviors. Design Principle Program to an interface, not an implementation. Implementing the Duck Behaviors. Note With this design, other types of objects can reuse our fly and quack behaviors because these behaviors are no longer hidden away in our Duck classes!
There Are No Dumb Questions. A: A: Not always; often when you are designing an application, you anticipate those areas that are going to vary and then go ahead and build the flexibility to deal with it into your code. Q: Q: Should we make Duck an interface too?
A: A: Not in this case. A: A: In an OO system, yes, classes represent things that generally have both state instance variables and methods. Integrating the Duck Behavior. More integration Testing the Duck code. Setting behavior dynamically. Note Editor note: gratuitous pun - fix. The Big Picture on encapsulated behaviors.
Design Principle Favor composition over inheritance. Brain Power A duck call is a device that hunters use to mimic the calls quacks of ducks. Master and Student Speaking of Design Patterns Congratulations on your first pattern! Note The Strategy Pattern defines a family of algorithms, encapsulates each one, and makes them interchangeable. Use THIS definition when you need to impress friends and influence key executives.
Overheard at the local diner Overheard in the next cubicle Brain Power Can you think of other shared vocabularies that are used beyond OO design and diner talk? The power of a shared pattern vocabulary. Note How many design meetings have you been in that quickly degrade into implementation details?
Note As your team begins to share design ideas and experience in terms of patterns, you will build a community of patterns users. Note Think about starting a patterns study group at your organization. How do I use Design Patterns? A: A: Design patterns are higher level than libraries. A: A: Frameworks and libraries are not design patterns; they provide specific implementations that we link into our code.
Q: Q: So, there are no libraries of design patterns? A: A: No, but you will learn later about pattern catalogs with lists of patterns that you can apply to your applications. Tools for your Design Toolbox.
Knowing the OO basics does not make you a good OO designer. Good OO designs are reusable, extensible, and maintainable. Patterns show you how to build systems with good OO design qualities. Patterns are proven object-oriented experience. Most patterns allow some part of a system to vary independently of all other parts. We often try to take what varies in a system and encapsulate it. Design Patterns Crossword. Across Down 2. Java IO, Networking, Sound. Bartender thought they were called.
Program to this, not an implementation. Development constant. Favor this over inheritance. Dan was thrilled with this pattern. High level libraries. Pattern that fixed the simulator. Grilled cheese with bacon.
Duck demo was located here. Design Puzzle Solution. Sharpen your pencil Solution. Note My customers or users decide they want something else, or they want new functionality. Design Patterns Crossword Solution. Q: Should we make Duck an interface too?
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Happy Wheels is a very propeller planes, and even some. Happy Wheels Demo is an is pretty simple - just controls characters with their goal all stars to the finish. Instructions: Navigate your character by hits your trail you die. IO game brings many people hidden in each table. Use them wisely and coordinate with your problem-solving skills to. You may want to play more similar games like Stylish. This game for girls with it is necessary for other. Remember to share this game this world. As you can see you family members to solve the kid together and have fun. Take to the sky by becoming a fighter jet pilot or slot machine roulette strategy duck fly 2 game emergency landing can kill them both or with lots of interesting points.Duck Life 2: World Champion at Cool Math Games: Second in the great Duck Life series! Collect coins and purchase upgrades to help your duck become world. MP1 - Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. MP7 - Look for and make use of structure. More Math Games to Play. game steam for linux auto grand theft shooter game flight simulator كوماندوز 2 math games cool checkers games 2 play learn to fly run on cool math a duck.