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Pathological gamblers do not know how to stop gambling and in trying to chase their losses, they turn into problem or compulsive gamblers. Problem gambling is a huge problem in society today, and with the prevalence of casinos in so many more areas of the country, it just continues to grow.
Some experts believe pathological or compulsive gambling is not a disease, however, most experts agree compulsive gambling is a life-threatening disease that not only affects the gambler, it affects all of those around him or her, from family and friends to employers, business associates, and creditors.
Compulsive gambling is a disease, and it affects far more than simply the gambler, as any loved…… [Read More]. Gambling a Social Problem Gambling. In addition to creating jobs, casinos on reservations provided the American Indian community with various social services and strengthened their social bonds Momper ; Cornell et al.
In summary, both proponents of gambling-is-a-social-problem thesis and their opponents have strong arguments at hand. The debate is likely to continue without being resolved as it is a controversial topic and gambling among the U. Hardoon, Karen et al. Sociology - Gambling the Sociology. These impulses may result in compulsive behavior ultimately leading to financial ruin and family devastation; partly for this reason, most American states had prohibited games of chance and other forms of gambling under a paternalistic attempt to protect people from their own compulsions Lears p.
Las Vegas benefited from a confluence of circumstances that brought in workers and tourists to partake of something other states outlawed, and in time, gambling became the most lucrative industry in the region, employing more local residents and generating more revenue from non-residents than any other industry.
Later, the connection between legalized gambling and its revenue-generating potential attracted criminal influences that shaped much of Las Vegas politics for decades. Partly because of the long-term association between gambling and criminal activity and partly because of age-old religious principles defining concepts like work, virtue, and sin, gambling was widely considered a blemish on society.
The additional…… [Read More]. Legalized Gambling in Galveston In the city of Galveston, Texas, it has been proposed to legalize gambling in order to support and encourage economic growth. Certainly legalizing gambling has been proven to increase revenue both in terms of development monies to the city and then also in the tourist trade as those who live in regions without gambling will likely travel to Galveston since it would be a closer cite for legal gambling than say Las Vegas, Nevada or Atlantic City, New Jersey.
However, there are also several negatives associate with the legalization of gambling in any location, particularly in locations where there are no current systems of legislation allowing for it in any close proximity, such as would be the case in Galveston. The primary benefit to the community of Galveston, Texas to the legalization of gambling would be economic.
For a community which has limited economic prowess in…… [Read More]. Relation of Game Theory and Gambling. Game theory is a critical form of decision making that is used in various subjects like economy and political science. Its relevance is becoming prominent in the success rates that have come out in gambling and sports betting. The theory is basically an amalgamation of different models of cooperation and conflict between various decision makers Myerson, Thus, it can be safely stated that the theory itself is not just one piece of information solidly put out there yet it's a combination of different authors and experts.
As mentioned earlier, the game theory has been linked to economic models, science, gambling like poker or sports betting and social situations as well. In the game theory the simplest way of putting it is analyzing the number of players and the moves that they are likely to take.
Using this information, a person can guess and figure out the number of choices…… [Read More]. Nature of Pathological Gambling and the Behavior. The article begins by focusing on the necessity and relevance of behavior-analytic explorations of pathological gambling, which has not, according to the report, drawn widespread research attention up to the time of writing.
One might therefore surmise that the article addresses an important component of behavior studies, since it can provide not only a deeper understanding of the compulsion being discussed, but also potential solutions for those who struggle with a gambling addiction. The study might even provide some grounds for further research into other types of addiction as well as other focus points within the gambling addiction paradigm.
It therefore provides rich grounds for discussion around the focus of investigation itself as well as a wider branch of potential exploration. The literature review is not extensive, and forms part of the introduction. General sources are consulted to explain the…… [Read More]. Against the Idea of Legalizing Gambling in. Youngstown, Ohio has been economically deprived for some time and the city government as well as community advocates are scrambling to re-vitalize the area.
When advocates of legalized gambling look at cities across the nation who have allowed it, they see improved economics through jobs and tourism as well as money for the school system being…… [Read More]. Ethics and Its Role in. However, while there are investors willing to invest on the profitability of gambling on the Internet, there are still many investors that are reluctant to pursue an investment on online gambling because of the financial insecurity of these sites.
These gambling sites are also known and are purportedly practicing "illegal transactions," since online gambling in the U. The lack of confidence in investing on online gambling and insecurity of the financial channels and transactions of these sites stem from the fact that "[t]here is also a question mark over whether U.
However, the question of the legality of these online gambling sites are being put into scrutiny. Poker and How it Affects American Culture. Poker, and gaming in general, permeate our culture today. The World Series of Poker is a huge event when even a decade ago it was barely known on a world scale, and poker players are the new "role models" for many in society. What does this say about our society and culture that reveres people whose only skill may be based on luck and a turn of the cards?
It says a lot about our culture and what we worship, and that may be frightening to contemplate. Poker is a card game, played in casinos for pleasure and hopefully profit. There are many different games of poker, from Texas hold 'em to Seven-card stud. Each game follows a different format, but…… [Read More]. Ethical issues marketing pubs, impacts individuals, groups society a. The answers specific case situation. Introduction Known slot machines world, 'pokies' a business continues grow Australia.
Setting the context The gambling industry is often associated with the large American casinos, which attract wealthy individuals from across the globe, and which are luxurious and enticing. These casinos integrate the entire gambling act in an overall greater experience of luxury and elegance.
But the industry of gambling has suffered some notable changes throughout the past recent years, in the meaning that it became more accessible to the average consumer. Nowadays then, gambling occurs in corner street pubs all over Australia, normally through slot machines pokies and the phenomenon raises some notable social issues.
For instance, the people most affected by financial loses as a result of pokies are…… [Read More]. Poker Machines Hitting it Big or a. Poker Machines: Hitting it big or a big hit It is the dream of every slot player who walks into the casino to hit the big one. It is a thrilling thought in which the player always begins with the fantasy of lining up all the winning symbols and carrying the winnings for spending. However, as the play continues, reality sets in, and deep within the dream become doubts as one realizes that there is more chance of the lightening striking than there is of hitting the jackpot.
The reality is the chances of hitting it big are astronomical. However, despite this knowledge, people still engage in the gamble. The issue thus becomes the social and economic impacts that gambling has on the society, the gambler, the industry and the government at large Orford, Various stakeholders in practice have varying perspectives of the issue at hand.
The issue continues…… [Read More]. Nichols, M. Journal of Socio-Economics: This journal article examines personal bankruptcy filings and compares the data obtained to determine what effect, if any, casino gambling may have had on said filings.
The authors used the bankruptcy filings from the jurisdictions having legalized casino gambling and compared these filing with bankruptcy filings from jurisdictions without legalized casino gambling. According to the authors, personal bankruptcy filings increased in seven of the eight jurisdictions that had legal casino gambling and that in five of these seven there was a statistical significance.
An interesting exception was noted by the article in that in one jurisdiction, iloxi, Mississippi, which had legal casino gambling, personal bankruptcies actually decreased. In the article the authors examined the reasons behind this unusual development and argued that the unique nature of the…… [Read More].
People are being entertained since the ancient times from these games that put the resources of the one who is playing them at risk Moodie and Hastings, It has been in the last 30 years that modern expansion of such extensive nature has taken place.
The affluent western societies have particularly been hit by this expansion of gambling. This increase has been associated with national lotteries' introduction in Europe, the expansion of casinos from riverboats and reservations into the most populated areas of North America as well as the increase in the number of proliferation of electronic gambling machines EGMs that are now being found very commonly in Australia Chapman, Expansions of similar sort can currently be observed to be taking place in…… [Read More].
People Believe it Is a. People are desperate to get their win, they have lost everything and still believe that magic hand or slot is right around the corner and resort to robbing, stealing, fraud and other means to obtain gambling funds Nauman, Gambling is illegal in most areas of the nation. Law enforcement is charged with arresting those that break the law.
In states across the nation gambling rings have been broken up and slot machines, video poker machines and roulette tables have been seized. The place for law enforcement with regard to gambling is to crack down on it and not turn a blind eye when they are aware that is going on. The children who do not have food…… [Read More].
Assessment and Diagnosis. Diagnosis The relevance of maintaining healthy communities cannot be overstated. In basic terms, communities should be designed and maintained in a way that promotes the well-being of their inhabitants. In so doing, such communities could end up realizing not only the economic but also the social benefits of a happier, healthier, and more productive society. There is therefore a need to assess and diagnose the key health problems specific to various communities.
This way, lasting and innovative solutions can be sought and implemented to rein in the identified health problems. Community For this particular assignment, I will concern myself with North Las Vegas which also happens to be one of the largest cities in Nevada. In terms of governance, the city falls under the administration of a mayor who is assisted in this role by four members of the council.
When it comes to city life, it is important to…… [Read More]. Why Women Gamble. For example, unlike their male counterparts, more women gravitate to less competitive games where there is a larger element of luck such as bingo, casino slots or video poker machines. Gambling problems have long been explored by psychologists as impulse control disorders characterized by an inability to resist impulses to gamble. Yet, gender differences among gambling preferences indicate that areas other than psychology such as a sociological point-of-view would prove helpful in explaining the gambling habits of women.
This paper explores these social issues and describes implications for the need to incorporate social factors in the treatment of female gambling addicts. The findings indicate that women warrant both psychological and social considerations in their recovery process. Studies have shown that the majority of escape gamblers, seventy percent, are women. In contract, only ten percent of action gamblers are women. An escape gambler is primarily trying to…… [Read More]. Casinos and how they lure customers [ Casinos are in business to make money, and they make money by keeping gamblers glued to the tables and slots.
They use a variety of ploys to keep people inside, from removing clocks so they do not know what time it is to feeding them free drinks and inexpensive food to keep them in the building. Casinos use a variety of ways to keep gamblers gaming, and knowing how they do it can give insight into the greed, corruption, and sheer arrogance of an industry that makes its living on other people's money and addictions.
Casinos lure gamblers to make money, and they do it any way they can, without regard for anything but their own maximum profit. How do they do it? The many ways…… [Read More]. Mandalay Resort Group the Events. Given the strong and increasing competition in the gaming and entertainment industry, Mandalay should apply a more aggressive strategy.
The group should continue to expand the business. This will attract more clients, and it will expand Mandalay's number of target segments, which will eventually lead to increased incomes. As mentioned above, Mandalay's strategy should focus on social responsibility also. By involving in the lives of its customers, Mandalay will be a more present figure in the customers' minds, which should lead to an increased degree of loyalty.
Customer loyalty can also be reached by increasing customer satisfaction. As a consequence, Mandalay's marketing department should seriously focus on discovering and analyzing customers' needs that have not yet been fulfilled. Implementing something new could help Mandalay gain serious competitive advantage over other gaming and entertainment industry players.
Mandalay should continue to exploit the advantage gained by addressing the entertainment oriented customers and…… [Read More]. Public Communication in December A good example of some of the different texts that were utilized to insight anger and violence can be seen with one that was sent to number Anglo Saxons in the commonwealth.
Where, it would encourage all youth in Western Australia to show up at Cronuella each, in an effort to protect the beach and women. This is significant, because it shows how the use of heated SMS messages could help to enrage both groups. As this form of written communication would increase the overall amounts of rage that the two side were feeling towards each other.
Visual languages were used to help increase the overall negative opinions that many Australians would feel towards the Arabs. Where, the women and men would dress differently in public with many women covering themselves. This is problematic, because it would cause a number of groups in society to view Arabs as untrustworthy, based…… [Read More]. Internet and Society the Internet. At stake in the long run is the global agora: the universal library- movie theater-television-concert hall-museum on the Internet.
The legal and social precedents set by Metallica v. Napster -- and half a dozen other e-music lawsuits-are likely to ramify into film and video as these, too, move online. Music, according to a National Research Council report released last November, is the "canary in the digital coal mine. Ghost Towns. In the late 's the discovery of gold triggered a flood of immigrants into the country, all intent on making their fortune.
These miners shaped the early history of America, and created a great deal of the legend that surrounds the era of the "ild est. This paper will examine life in the mining camps of the gold rush era. This will include a look at the people who made up the camps, the general atmosphere, as well as prostitution, gambling, general lawlessness, and the role of religion within the mining camps. The demise of the mining camps will be examined in the context of the development of the railroad and…… [Read More].
Online Casinos. Mark aters of GamblingSoftware. The main reason for online gambling popularity is that gamblers can play any time in any location Helping pp. Moreover, online gaming is probably the most sound business model on the Internet today, there's no inventory, no shipping, just customer relationship management, say aters Helping pp.
Type in "online casinos" on Google, and 5,, sights pop up. That's quite an array of opportunities for players, astounding actually, and players never have to leave their home or even change out of their pajamas! This term seems to have been coined in the s when researchers were attempting to describe a constellation of behaviors observed in persons using the Internet to such an extent that it began to cause other aspects of their lives to become dysfunctional.
The DSM-IV disorder most similar to the pattern of behaviors observed with overuse of video games is pathological gambling. Presumably, the more colloquial term addiction was derived from the similarities to gambling addiction. For this report, this pattern of heavy video game playing is referred to as "video game overuse. It is not clear whether withdrawal symptoms are associated with video game overuse; some excessive users do not exhibit "cravings" for the games if they are unavailable, while other users insist they cannot reduce…… [Read More].
Shopping as an Addiction. Naylor engage in a highly rhetorical comparison of addictive shopping to physical addictions such as alcoholism and drug addiction and behavioral addictions like compulsive gambling. It becomes clear shortly into their paper that their purpose is largely alarmist and moralistic, rather than medically or therapeutically intended: none of the authors has any medical or psychiatric credentials.
I hope by addressing three aspects of their paper -- their rhetorical strategy, their shifts in focus, and in particular their examples presented as evidence, particularly their closing example -- that I may show the ways in which their thoughts actually confuse rather than clarify issues of behavioral addiction. The title alone of the essay gives, in miniature, a fair taste of De Graaf et al.
Crime the Purpose of This. Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs. Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics.
The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…… [Read More]. Business Ethics Every Company Regardless of the.
Business Ethics Every company regardless of the nature of their work is required to contribute to the community that sustains their growth. Casinos are therefore not an exception to this rule. We understand that they consumer massive energy and other resources to keep their customers satisfied on daily basis but that does not excuse them from contributing to the benefit of the environment and of the community that support them.
An environmentally conscious company is the one that is aware of the impact of its activities on the environment and works hard to reduce the impact. Oil companies for example come under attack regularly for damaging the environment. BP oil spill is one such example. But that doesn't mean that only companies like Oil or Drug organizations are responsible for protecting the environment, other firms are equally responsible for playing their role effectively.
Gambling is a socially acceptable activity in…… [Read More]. Pascal's Wager. Pascal's Wager Pascal's "wager" is a fundamental philosophical argument defending belief in God. Through logical analysis based on a punishment-reward premise, Pascal shows that believing in God is preferable to not believing.
The argument is called a "wager" because Pascal phrases it as a sort of bet: the individual has a better chance of being rewarded through belief than through denial. Therefore, Pascals' wager defends belief in God through reason and appeal to basic self-interest rather than through theological or mystical proofs. Yet even though Pascal tries to divorce belief in God from blind faith, his argument rests heavily on Christian theology.
Pascal's God is the Biblical God, the results of his wager similar to a heaven-hell duality as proposed by Christianity as well as other monotheistic religions. Through the wager, Pascal is trying to show readers that believing in God is a personal decision, and one that can be…… [Read More]. Taxes Direct Democracy and Federalism. This is designed to help support individuals who are dealing with financial challenges. The problem is that select amounts of recipients will use as a way to live off of the government.
Wolf, How might a socialist and a capitalist government differ in its treatment of the problem of unemployment? Socialists want to see massive amounts of government spending to create new jobs, training programs and provide unemployment benefits. In your opinion, should the government have the responsibility of providing health care for every citizen? Why or why not? Yes, the government should provide health care.
The reason why is because prices are increasing exponentially and the number of uninsured is rising. These factors are a sign that there is very little competition inside the sector. To address these…… [Read More]. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI.
Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug.
Some of the self-reports they observed e. They also suggest that these results imply…… [Read More]. Alabama Lottery Proposal Analysis. Assessing the costs and benefits of this lottery is challenging. The costs are ill-defined, and often lumped in with other gambling costs in general. Yet, lotteries are not the same thing as casino gambling or sports gambling. So there is a lack of hard data available. The benefits are clearer. These take into account the return on money already being spent by Alabamans out-of-state, and the multiplier effect of this new spending.
For the state government, the lottery is a clear winner, but for the Alabama economy as a whole, the cost-benefit analysis looks less positive. The state of Alabama is examining ways in which it can increase its revenues. One of the ideas that has been floated is that of a state-run lottery. In February a bill was passed that will allow the state to set-up a statewide vote…… [Read More]. Casinos Help Turn Around Local. Casinos also pay taxes to the government which again means that the local community loses the money gained by the casino.
Another way in which the local economy does not benefit from the casino is when the casino gets its supplies from external suppliers or the casino owners live outside the casino's economic area. Some of the casino profits can also be lost as a result of government services provided in that area like providing better roads and traffic control to the casino.
Hsu, The casino may also require additional police protection and judicial activity in case criminal activity goes up in the region. Las Vegas has also had its own share of problems as an off-shoot of the phenomenal success of casinos there.
It has had to deal with air pollution, shortage of water, inadequate methods of mass transportation and other infrastructure related problems. Despite these problems, Las…… [Read More]. Management on Casinos. Management of Casinos The history of gambling in the United States consists of three periods, called waves.
During these periods, laws and social standards vacillated from prohibition to regulation and vice-versa Dunstan The first wave was during the colonial era from the s to the middle of the s when early colonists had a vastly different attitude towards gambling. These colonists were the Puritans and the English who established their individual communities, where their distinct values were observed and lived. The Puritans, prominently in the Massachusetts ay Colony, prohibited gambling, the possession of gambling items cards, dice, gaming tables and even dancing and singing.
This rigid behavior, however, relaxed the following year to allow innocent gaming as recreation, but not as a trade or profession. The English, in contrast, not only allowed it but indulged in gambling as a harmless and popular diversion Dunstan. Gambling was further enhanced by…… [Read More]. Battle of Santa Monica Bay. The oceans which boarder our country also protect it from outsider who would attempt to over through our nation.
However, battles are not always military. Currently, numerous cultural battles are taking place in the public arena. Battles over right and wrong, or over what society will allow, and what society considers as disruptive or harmful to our continuance are often more contentious than a military conflict fought on a foreign soil.
The case of the Battle for Santa Monica Bay falls into this latter category. The willingness of the state of California to become a center of gambling, with the social maladies which tend to follow the gambling industry was the source of what is referred to as the Battle for Santa Monica Bay.
During the Gold ush, and for the…… [Read More]. Off Track Betting. Track Betting in Sports - the Pros and the Cons There is no doubt that first of all, thoroughbred wagering is a huge sport in the U. And elsewhere; and there also is no doubt that off-track betting OTB has become a very popular form of gambling, not only in the United States, but all over the world.
Like any issue involving money, the public, and potential harmful habits that could be formed, OTB is, always has been - and always will be - controversial. This paper will discuss gambling addiction and other negative wagering issues as part of the "con" side including the age groups most vulnerable to addictive behaviors ; and the paper will also present the "pro" side, including food, beverage and entertainment services offered at OTB sites, the newest OTB innovations which are on the Internet, which makes a person's home a veritable OTB ; and the paper…… [Read More].
Economics in the U S A Source: The Financial Forecast Center, Increases in unemployment rate mean that the gambling industry will be faced with fewer customers. This in turn will materialize in reduced sales and profits. If the situation continues to aggravate in the years to come, several players in the gambling industry might have to close their casinos.
One must also notice the exceptional situations in which out of job individuals will gamble in the hope of winning some money. However, these instances are reduced and not able to modify the indirect relationship between the evolution of unemployment rate and demand for gambling services.
Vice versa, when the unemployment rate decreases and the population enjoys more sources of revenues, the demand for the services of casino clubs increases. Within…… [Read More]. Electronic Cash and Smart Cards Forms of. Electronic Cash and Smart Cards Forms of electronic cash came about in the s with the rise of the Internet and a new way to do business. Smart cards were among the new forms. When purchasing products over the Internet, consumers have concerns about the privacy of their information with electronic payments.
Some studies were conducted to evaluate the pros and cons of smart cards, how the security is designed in the payment systems, and if the use of smart cards can change the addictive behavior of gamblers. Mondex What it is It is claimed the Mondex smart card can be used the same as cash and have the advantage of not having to carry cash at the same time.
It was conceived as a technological solution to the handling of money and undermining the traditional role of the circuit of money. Knights, The aim was to replace the…… [Read More]. Sports and Betting. Discussed are the problems with the betting, players getting gifts from betting agents, and effect of sports betting on the economy.
Seven sources are used. Sports and Betting More Americans play more sports than in any other country in the world. Moreover, we watch more sports than anyone else on earth. Football and figure skating, two sports that could not be more different have drawn the biggest TV audiences in history. Sports bind us together as Americans.
It has the ability more than just about anything else to tear down the barriers of race, class, gender, politics and geography McDonald Sports is part of our national culture. It's part of our national conversation. A waitress at the local cafe talks Friday-night football with the cop and the banker. A Democratic gardener, trimming the greens at the country club, discusses golf swings or last week's tournament with a…… [Read More].
Should Marijuana Be Legalized Nationally. People have been using Cannabis Sativa, also known as marijuana, for a number of centuries now. The plant from which marijuana is made grows in several locations around the world. Cannabis Sativa plant's flowering top is the source of marijuana as it has Tetrahydrocannnabinol THC , a chemical that induces the state changes among users of marijuana.
Studies show that using marijuana has both long-term and short-term health effects. Marijuana's short-term effects include distorting the senses including the sense of time and a reduced ability to concentrate. Long-term effects can be more damaging health wise and include a drop in testosterone and sperm levels among men, respiratory problems similar to those suffered by those who smoke tobacco, fatigue, lower libido, reduced fertility and alterations of body composition where the body records a drop in muscle mass as fat mass…… [Read More].
Phenix City Story Once Known. Let it be understood here and now, once and for all, that there will be no return to Russell County of that tragic era, the days when the law violator reigned supreme, and trampled the Constitution and laws under his foot. From this day forward the reign of law has come to Russell County to stay, and stay it will under the providence of God and all the power of Alabama's government To those who have had part in the lawlessness in this country, who have made crime their livelihood, who have grown fat in the debauchery of our youth and the destruction of the morale of our Nation's young soldiers, your day is ended, your hour of reckoning is at hand, you stand at Armageddon The Name, "Phenix" Excuses and Reasons Besides, you start drinking whiskey gambling, it gives you an excuse for losing.
That's something you…… [Read More]. Supervisory Development Plan. Supervisory Development Plan This situational analysis is about the different ways in which situations can be handled. There is not much difficulty in understanding the complexity of the situation which is about to be discussed. Situational analysis starts with the setting of goals which then will be analyzed and decided how to go about them.
This way the knowledge base will also increase. It will also help in improving the overall productivity. The performance gap will also help ensure that everything is done in a proper manner net time. With the help of different feedback from different people, I will then come to the conclusion which should have been reached to from the start.
The first step to devising a supervisory plan is to set goals. Without the proper set of goals the plan will surely fail. This will result in the whole plan to flop. All the work which…… [Read More]. Filter Results By:. Keyword s Filter by Keywords: add comma between each. Having trouble coming up with an Essay Title? Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly. Works Cited Abbot, M. Volberg, R.
Bellringer, M. Wardle, Heather. Orford, Jim. Sproston, Kerry. Erens, Bob. Works Cited The Christian and Gambling. Gambling and the Bible. Works Cited Barrett, Will. Online opinion: Austrialia's e-journal of social and political debate. References Anderson, Dan. Gambling as a profession.
ABC Article Directory. Official gamblers' home page. International Service Office. Work Cited Dooley, Jason. Breaux, Kia Shante. Gambling Odds View Full Essay. Works Cited Walters, Patrick. NBCUniversal, Inc. Eadington, William R. Works Cited Consensual crime. Saum, William S. References Casey, E. Ashgate Publishing. And Thomas R. Gambling against the state: The state and the legitimation of gambling. Current Sociology 4 5 :1 -- Cosgrave J.
Canadian Journal of Sociology. Vol 35, No Criminal violation of state gambling laws was scarcely an issue for the National Gambling Impact Commission. Instead, the Commission focused on social policy and consequences of the widespread growth and acceptance of legal gambling. Treasury Order No. Although not all casinos have connections to organized-crime, such roots have at times become visible. During the s, a number of casinos were found by Nevada authorities and the U. Department of Justice to be infiltrated by organized crime families who controlled union pension funds that facilitated casino expansion.
The introduction of strong regulatory measures by the states has been a factor in enabling casino gambling to expand throughout the United States. Moreover, gambling enterprises are typically owned and run by major hotel and leisure industry companies, whose stocks are publicly traded, reviewed by financial analysts and the Securities and Exchange Commission as well as by federal and state law enforcement agencies.
In the s only two U. By the year , twenty-eight states had legalized some form of casino gambling, usually in resorts, such as in Biloxi, Mississippi, or on riverboats. Detroit, Michigan, was the only major industrial United States city to have legalized casinos.
Approximately casinos were located on Indian lands, with many more expected, especially in California, in the twenty-first century. The U. Supreme Court issued a landmark decision in California v. Cabazon Band of Mission Indians, U. The Court declared that gambling is a legitimate tourist activity, like hunting and fishing, for Indians to exploit. IGRA divides gambling into three classes: Class I consists of traditional tribal games; Class II consists of games such as bingo, lotto, and punch cards.
If these games, such as charity bingo, are permitted by a state and do not violate federal law, they may be conducted on Indian lands without state approval. Class III consists of all other games, especially casino games, parimutual racing, and jai alai.
Nevertheless, disputes have arisen between states and Indian tribes over the requirements of IGRA in the areas of regulation, the scope of permitted gambling activities, and the requirement that states negotiate in good faith with tribes. Supreme Court, in Seminole Tribe of Florida v. Florida , U.
This decision, in effect, invalidated the good faith negotiation requirement of IGRA. By no means, however, did the Seminole decision portend an end to the expansion of Class III casino gambling sponsored by Indian tribes. States could voluntarily negotiate with Indian tribes, as Connecticut had earlier with the Mashantucket Pequot tribe, who built and ran the highest-grossing casino in the world. In March , California voters passed a constitutional proposition ratifying these compacts and legalizing a major expansion of Indian casino gambling in California.
Fun, excitement, and the occasional thrill of winning seem to motivate most gamblers. Whatever else may be said against it, gambling is not physically risky. Some psychologists have even argued that gambling can be psychologically beneficial because some gamblers affirm their existence and worth by using skills in a risky setting Kusyszyn. Other psychiatrists compare the excitement of gambling to the intoxication of drugs.
A Harvard University sponsored meta-analysis of research on gambling found that 2. The lifetime rate was 5. This was low as compared to alcohol dependence and abuse 9. Those citing the social costs of gambling usually include, in addition to pathological or disordered gambling, its attraction to youth, elevated crime rates, suicide rates, family problems, bankruptcy, and the corruption of legislators.
However, since gambling also provides economic benefits through employment opportunity, economic renewal of declining resorts and urban areas, and taxation, legal gambling has become an increasingly attractive option for many communities. As expansion has continued, at the turn of the century a backlash has occurred, with several states declining to introduce lotteries or casinos.
Five federal statutes address Internet gambling, particularly the Wire Act 18 U. Several states, including Nevada, Texas, Illinois, and Louisiana, have introduced or passed legislation specifically prohibiting Internet gambling. Nevertheless, the large majority of Internet gambling sites, along with their owners or operators, are beyond the reach of state attorneys general.
On 17 July , the U. House of Representatives voted down the Internet Act, legislation that sought to shut down many new online gambling sites—the number of such sites was estimated at between seven hundred and one thousand—most of which operated beyond U. Proponents of the legislation included an unusual coalition of Nevada gaming interests, major sports leagues, and Christian conservatives. Proponents cited the potential dangers of Internet gambling, including the undermining of the integrity of sporting events; the potential for defrauding unsophisticated gamblers; the ease of access by children; an increase in gambling addictions; and the need to preserve state revenues from legal, state-run gambling.
Opponents carried the day arguing that the legislation would drive online gambling underground; tamper with the Internet economy; invade Internet privacy; and be difficult to enforce against sophisticated but inexpensive technologies. Even assuming that law enforcement could develop the technological capacity to detect violations, provisions allowing for prosecution of gamblers would require enormous expansion of federal law enforcement to obtain and administer search warrants and subpoenas.
Also cited were issues of jurisdiction, comity, and sovereignty, especially where other countries have chosen, or likely will choose, to regulate, that is, license and tax, Internet gambling. Most basic to the legal and social issues of Internet gambling is the reality that cyberspace transcends borders. Consequently, Internet gambling markets are inherently global, undermining the traditional territorial basis for legal regulation of borders. Governments have the power to grant licenses and to tax within their sovereign territory.
State-licensed casinos in the United States are taxed on their winnings at 7. Internet purveyors will be able to offer better odds to price-sensitive gambling consumers. Will gamblers demand better odds from land-based gambling sites, such as casinos and racetracks? Will states be forced to lower gambling taxes? Will cyberspace gambling replace sited gambling or increase the demand for it? At the onset of the twenty-first century, predictions are difficult.
Conversely, for some Internet problem gamblers, this mode of gambling appears to be the proximal cause of problems, with problem gamblers reporting that their problems started after they first gambled online and around half specifically attributing problems to this mode [ 13 , 20 ]. However, most studies examining the relationship between Internet gambling and problems are cross-sectional, which do not allow for causality to be determined and self-report is subject to bias and reliant on accuracy of reporting.
Longitudinal research will be an important addition to this field to address these issues. As Internet gambling increases in popularity and use, it is likely that the next generation of gamblers will use Internet modes earlier in their gambling career, which may increase the proportion of individuals who experience problems that are attributed to this mode. However, there is a growing recognition that Internet gamblers are a heterogeneous group, and research needs to consider how Internet gambling behaviour may be integrated more broadly with offline gambling [ 48 , 65 ].
Analysis of demographic variables suggests that Internet problem gamblers overall do not represent a distinctly different cohort than gamblers who experience problems related to land-based gambling. Risk factors for Internet problem gambling identified include being male, younger adults, and being from a culturally diverse background [ 13 , 20 , 41 , 66 , 67 ]. The consistent relationship found between problematic Internet gambling and younger age suggests that this population is particularly vulnerable to harms related to this form, and use of Internet gambling amongst young males is an area that warrants further attention in terms of research as well as harm minimisation.
Risk factors identified do not appear to be universal; for example, Gainsbury, Russell, Wood, Hing and Blaszczynski [ 13 ] found problem Internet gamblers more likely to be young, less educated and have greater debts than non-problem Internet gamblers. A subsequent study found only age differed between Internet and non-Internet problem gamblers when controlling for Internet gambling participation, and there were no significant differences based on education or income [ 20 ].
Other studies have also found that Internet gamblers are more likely to have higher educational levels and socio-economic profiles [e. However, these are associations that do not control for the interaction between variables so it is difficult to draw firm conclusions about problem as compared to non-problem Internet gamblers. It is likely that the profile of those at risk for developing Internet gambling problems will change as this mode of gambling becomes more accepted and widely used and further research is conducted.
A study examining irrational and erroneous thinking found that greater levels of erroneous cognitions significantly predicted problem gambling severity when controlling for other variables among Internet gamblers [ 46 ]. As psychological comorbidities and irrational thinking are related to problems amongst land-based gamblers, these results suggest that the clinical characteristics of Internet problem gamblers are similar to offline gamblers.
There is also evidence that Internet problem gamblers have higher rates of drug and alcohol use than non-problem gamblers. Analysis of surveys completed by online gamblers indicated that compared to non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers were more likely to smoke cigarettes, have a disability and drink alcohol while gambling online [ 67 ].
This is consistent with higher rates of mood and substance use disorders and self-harm among highly involved Internet gamblers [ 70 ]. An Australian telephone survey found that illicit drug use was a significant predictor of having greater levels of gambling problems [ 13 ]. These results may indicate that Internet gamblers who are at risk for gambling problems may engage in a range of risk-taking behaviours, for example, due to high levels of impulsivity [ 72 ].
Nonetheless, the relationships between Internet gambling, gambling problems and other mental health issues are still unclear [ 73 ]. For example, multiple studies in Sweden did not support the assumption that Internet gambling would attract people with low social support, psychological problems, physical problems or health problems such as risky alcohol consumption [ 41 ]. Similarly, offline gamblers were more likely to report health and psychological impacts of problem gambling than Internet gamblers in an Australian study comparing at-risk and problem gamblers [ 20 ].
Furthermore, in a nationally representative Australian telephone survey, Internet gamblers were less likely to drink alcohol and smoke when they were gambling online than when gambling in land-based venues, indicating they were unlikely to be using Internet modes to avoid restrictions on smoking or alcohol [ 13 ].
Overall, existing studies fail to define specific personal or behavioural risk factors to differentiate between Internet and non-Internet problem gamblers. There is some evidence that these do represent at least partially different cohorts; however, the heterogeneity in each group makes specific risk factors difficult to identify. No studies have established the causation between associations found and the direction of any link between problem online gambling.
The individual factors related to Internet gambling problems are under-researched and would benefit from longitudinal studies to clarify the mechanism of action of any relationships between variables. Intense gambling involvement has been verified as a predictor of gambling problems for online and offline gamblers. Other gambling-related behaviours have also been identified as being potential markers of risky Internet gambling.
It is possible that unregulated sites attract individuals who are at greater risk for experiencing problems, and use of multiple online accounts and multiple activities is a proxy indicator of gambling involvement, a known predictor of harm. Analyses of player accounts, including players who exhibit what appears to be risky behaviour, as well as those who have closed accounts due to stated gambling problems, have enabled markers of problem gambling, including early predictors, to be identified.
Potential predictors of risky Internet gambling or the emergence of problems include engaging in multiple online gambling activities, high variability in betting, multiple bets per day, many active betting days per month, many bets per betting day, high overall stakes and net loss, increasing bet size and losses, chasing losses and intervals of increasing wagering size, followed by rapid drops [ 58 , 59 , 76 — 80 ].
One notable finding from studies of the bwin. This type of betting allows frequent and repeated bets to be placed during a single sporting event, with rapidly determined outcomes, which may be particularly attractive to people who are highly impulsive and at greater risk for disordered gambling [ 81 ].
However, this relationship has not been investigated in independent samples. Analysis of customer communication with online operators identified risk markers that predicted customers closing their accounts due to stated gambling problems. These included expressed doubts about results of games, requests for account reopening, queries about financial transactions and account administration, the frequency of contacts per month urgency and use of a threatening tonality [ 82 ].
These results were based on a relatively small sample with a limited control group. Single, unmistakable indicators for problems are uncommon, and therefore detection of risk indicators usually relies on algorithms to detect interaction between these. Further research is still required to untangle whether game-specific characteristics play a causal role in the emergence of gambling problems.
Research is also needed on a variety of different player accounts, as the vast majority of research has been done with a single dataset from one European gambling site, which may not be generalizable to other online gamblers. Identifying, detecting and acting on early risk indicators may reduce gambling-related harms sustained by Internet gamblers. However, few online operators have shared their data to be used for research purposes or implemented policies and strategies to detect potentially risky players and implement appropriate resources.
Such preventative action is generally not required by Internet gambling regulators, meaning that further action is reliant on operator-initiated action. Taken together, the evidence reviewed here suggests that Internet gambling does not cause gambling problems in, and of, itself.
However, use of Internet gambling is more common among highly involved gamblers, and for some Internet gamblers, this medium appears to significantly contribute to gambling problems. Internet gamblers are a heterogeneous group, and the impact of this mode of access on gambling problems is moderated by a range of individual, social and environmental variables. As Internet gambling continues to evolve and participation increases, particularly among young people who are highly familiar with Internet technology and online commerce, it is likely that related problems will emerge.
Research and regulation will have to evolve to further the understanding of the impact of this mode of access on the experience and incidence of gambling disorders. There appear to be some unique differences between Internet and land-based gamblers who experience problems [ 20 ].
Theoretical models for gambling and problem gambling have been developed based on land-based gambling, largely not considering the recent emergence of Internet modes. It is important to revisit these conceptual models to verify if they account for pathological gambling among Internet gamblers and whether any new variables or interactions should be included to explain the emergence of gambling problems.
Research will likely continue to distinguish the characteristics mediators and moderator that may be used to identify online gamblers who are at risk for gambling-related problems. This is necessary to develop a more comprehensive understanding of how people develop gambling problems. Research is needed to understand how to reduce the likelihood of people transitioning to disordered gambling.
Furthermore, operators can enact strategies to assist customers including targeted notifications e. Enhancing the provision of a responsible gambling environment will require cooperation between independent researchers to design, evaluate and verify strategies, operators to enable access to appropriate data and implement procedures and regulators to require the use of effective responsible gambling policies.
Treatment and prevention strategies must be revisited to ensure that these are relevant and effective for Internet gamblers. Brief online interventions as well as in-depth online treatment programmes may be relevant for Internet gamblers [ 85 ]. Online self-exclusion programmes should be developed that would allow individuals to exclude themselves from multiple gambling sites simultaneously.
The findings presented here are important for policy makers due to evidence that Internet gambling in itself is not harmful. The research is also relevant for clinicians, as it suggests that in addition to some gambling forms being more likely to lead to problems, how individuals access these also has an impact on subsequent harms.
This highlights the importance of considering the broad spectrum of gambling behaviour and how different patterns of gambling may be associated with the experience of gambling-related harm. Further research is required to identify the protective factors of online gambling environments that may reduce levels of harms among Internet gamblers. These may include the capacity for lower bet sizes than in land-based venues due to lower costs for operators ; the ability to track wins, losses and deposits using an online account, gambling only for short sessions due to other activities concurrently occurring in the home, or outside of a gambling venue; the presence of others when gambling; and access to responsible gambling tools and resources [ 51 ].
Gainsbury has received grants from Gambling Research Australia; NSW Office of Liquor, Gaming and Racing; Echo Entertainment; Aristocrat Leisure Industries; Manitoba Gambling Research Program; and Sportsbet pertaining to research to understand and enhance the responsible provision of Internet gambling, research to understand optimal treatment approaches for gambling, research to enhance responsible gambling strategies and assessment of problem gambling among casino employees.
Gainsbury has received honoraria from the Department of Broadband Communication and the Digital Economy, Department of Social Services, Gaming Technologies Association, British Columbia Lottery Corporation and Nova Scotia Provincial Lotteries and Casino Corporation for research and expertise to inform responsible gambling messages and responsible gambling strategies for Internet gambling. This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Technology and Addiction. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Current Addiction Reports. Curr Addict Rep. Published online Apr Sally M. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Gainsbury, Email: ua.
Corresponding author. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Introduction Internet gambling a term largely interchangeable with interactive remote and online gambling refers to the range of wagering and gaming activities offered through Internet-enabled devices, including computers, mobile and smart phones, tablets and digital television. Participation Internet gambling is growing rapidly in terms of popularity, market share and products offered.
Internet Gambling and Problem Gambling Features of Internet Gambling That May Impact Problem Severity Evidence suggests that there is a relationship, albeit complex, between the availability of gambling opportunities and increased levels of related problems [ 25 — 30 ]. The Impact of Internet and Land-Based Gambling on Gambling Problems Evidence is emerging that Internet gambling is not only predictive of gambling problems but also that when other variables are controlled for, individuals who gamble online may have lower rates of gambling problems.
Risk Factors for Internet Gambling Problems Personal Variables Socio-demographic Variables Analysis of demographic variables suggests that Internet problem gamblers overall do not represent a distinctly different cohort than gamblers who experience problems related to land-based gambling. Gambling Behaviours Intense gambling involvement has been verified as a predictor of gambling problems for online and offline gamblers.
Conclusions Taken together, the evidence reviewed here suggests that Internet gambling does not cause gambling problems in, and of, itself. Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Gainsbury S, Wood R. Internet gambling policy in critical comparative perspective: the effectiveness of existing regulatory frameworks. Int Gambl Stud. Monaghan S. Responsible gambling strategies for Internet gambling: the theoretical and empirical base of using pop-up messages to encourage self-awareness. Comput Hum Behav. American Psychiatric Association. DSM 5. American Psychiatric Association; Dowling NA. Issues raised by the DSM-5 internet gaming disorder classification and proposed diagnostic criteria.
H2 Gambling Capital. The online gambling market. Reported by Bwin. Global Betting and Gaming Consultants. Global Gaming Report 6th ed. Gibraltar: Odobo; Global gaming outlook. Dec Lycka M. Online gambling: towards a transnational regulation. Gaming Law Rev Econ. Gambling Commission. Gambling participation: activities and mode of access. Available from: Commission P. Government of Australia: Productivity Commission; The prevalence and determinants of problem gambling in Australia: assessing the impact of interactive gambling and new technologies.
Psychol Addict Behav. Using a nationally representative telephone survey, this paper compared problem gambling among Internet and non-Internet gamblers to reveal variables related to each. The findings demonstrate that Internet problem gamblers experience harms also related to land-based gambling and that gambling problems are related to overall involvement and intensity rather than the mode of access used.
British gambling prevalence survey A digital revolution: comparison of demographic profiles, attitudes and gambling behavior of Internet and non-Internet gamblers. Motivating and inhibiting factors in online gambling behaviour: a grounded theory study. Int J Ment Health Addict. Why do Internet gamblers prefer online versus land-based venues? Some preliminary findings and implications. J Gambl Issues. Cotte J, Latour KA. Blackjack in the kitchen: understanding online versus casino gambling.
J Consum Res. Attitudes towards Internet gambling: perceptions of responsible gambling, consumer protection, and regulation of gambling sites. The impact of Internet gambling on gambling problems: a comparison of moderate-risk and problem Internet and non-Internet gamblers. Based on a large online survey, moderate-risk and problem gamblers were compared based on their use of Internet gambling. The results demonstrate that Internet gamblers who experience gambling-related harms appear to represent a somewhat different group from non-Internet problem and moderate-risk gamblers—Internet gamblers were younger, engaged in a greater number of gambling activities, and were more likely to bet on sports.
Griffiths MD, Parke J. The social impact of internet gambling. Soc Sci Comput Rev. National Gambling Impact Study Commission. J Public Policy Markk. Problem gambling on the Internet: implications for Internet gambling policy in North America. New Media Soc. This paper was based on one of the first comprehensive studies of Internet gambling in a Canadian and international sample.
The article provided substantial new insight into how Internet and land-based gamblers differ. A study of differences in Canadian university students' gambling and proximity to a casino. Understanding the influence of gambling opportunities: expanding exposure models to include adaptation. Am J Orthopsychiat. Reith G. Beyond addiction or compulsion: the continuing role of environment in the case of pathological gambling.
Links between casino proximity and gambling participation, expenditure, and pathology. Access or adaptation? A meta-analysis of surveys of problem gambling prevalence in Australia and New Zealand with respect of concentration of electronic gaming machines. The relationship of ecological and geographic factors to gambling behavior and pathology. J Gambl Stud. Sociodemographic correlates of internet gambling: findings from the British gambling prevalence survey. Cyberpsychol Behav. New Med Soc. Online first DOI: A scoping study of the structural and situational characteristics of Internet gambling.
Valentine G, Hughes K. A previous general population study including both gamblers and non-gamblers in Sweden found a modest percentage reporting an increased gambling behavior during the crisis. As a response to decreased sports events, a minority reported either turning to other remaining sports events, online casino, or horse betting.
From a population survey in Ontario, Canada, it was reported that during the first weeks of lockdown of physical facilities such as land-based casinos, a substantial migration appeared to have occurred from land-based-only gambling to online gambling Price, Given the theoretically increased role of online behaviors King et al. For the present study, data were derived from a population study on gambling behaviors, designed prior to the COVID crisis as a web survey which was carried out during the month of May, , i.
The aim of the present study was to describe pastday use of different gambling types during the COVID pandemic in individuals defined as online gamblers, in order to enable a comparison with pastday data reported from a previous survey in online gamblers carried out in In particular, given the considerable changes in sports world-wide, the study also aimed to assess whether online sports bettors still reporting pastday sports betting differed from those who did not.
Here, it was hypothesized that pastday gambling in Swedish online gamblers would be more common in relation to a measure of past-year gambling behavior for some gambling types, such as online casino or other online-based gambling types likely to be unaffected by the COVID constraints, compared to gambling types more clearly affected by the pandemic. Also, it was hypothesized that people who maintained gambling during the crisis, particularly for gambling types such as sports betting believed to be reduced during COVIDrelated restrictions, would present other characteristics than other online gamblers.
The present analysis is a partial analysis from a larger study on online gambling in Sweden. This sub-analysis focuses on pastday and past-year gambling patterns in Swedish online gamblers, in order to highlight the online gambling situation during the ongoing COVID crisis.
The overall study was designed prior to the COVID crisis, and aimed for a larger number of analyses of the online gambling behavior in the setting. As a pastday measure for different gambling types is available, this subset of data was used for the present analysis.
The survey was carried out from May 5 to 12, such that the day period for each participant refers to a period well within the period of time when constraints due to COVID were actively ongoing, and during that whole day period, sports betting related to major sports events, such as major soccer leagues, were completely canceled.
The study was reviewed by the Swedish Ethical Review Authority file number , which expressed that the study did not formally require ethical permission according to Swedish law, as it does not deal with data that can be directly or indirectly linked to a specific individual, and also expressed no ethical concerns with respect to the study. The study was opened only after a participant provided informed consent.
Participation in the study was paid following the credit system used by Ipsos for other studies, and where a survey of the present extent and duration is rewarded with credit points corresponding to a value of around 1. The present study took place in Sweden, where gambling, since January 1st, , is regulated in a license-based system, with a large number of licensed operators.
Land-based casinos and land-based electronic gambling machines are run by a state-based monopoly, whereas betting on sports and horse racing, online casino and bingo games, as well as land-based and online lotteries, are subject to competition between a number of operators. Slightly below 1. During the period analyzed in the present study, sports events on competitive level in Sweden were canceled, whereas land-based horse track racing continued, although without present audience but available through wagering online.
Likewise, the four major land-based casinos, all owned by the state monopoly, were closed. The present study aimed to include past-year online gamblers. The sample addressed were web panel members of a Swedish market survey company, Ipsos, i. Participants of the web panel are regularly addressed with offers to participate in different surveys.
The study had the intention to include 1, individuals. When closing the study, 1, individuals had answered the survey. For 13 of them, at least one of the nine items of the gambling severity instrument PGSI, see below were missing, and therefore could not be categorized in a gambling severity category. Three of them, however, had a total value already reaching above the cut-off for the highest problem level in that instrument eight points or more from the available items, and were accordingly categorized into that highest problem gambling category and included in the study.
The remaining 10 individuals were excluded from further analyses based on the uncertainty of their problem gambling status , such that a final sample of individuals were included in the study. Patterns of recent gambling was measured for each of the gambling types included, asking for whether that gambling types had been used 1 during the past 30 days, and if not 2 at any time during the past-year gambling types assessed were online casino, land-based casino, online horse betting, land-based horse betting, sports live betting, sports non-live betting, online poker, land-based poker, land-based electronic gambling machines, online bingo, and gambling within video games.
Thus, respondents endorsing the pastday item were not asked about the period of time prior to the past 30 days. Individuals reporting any past-year gambling for a gambling type, but not pastday gambling for that type, were compared to those reporting pastday gambling non-recent vs. As no comparable day period was available for comparison, the proportions of past-year gamblers who reported pastday gambling, for each gambling type, were used as a measure of the extent to which different gambling types were affected by the COVID period.
Problem gambling severity was measured using the Problem Gambling Severity Index PGSI , a nine-item scale Wynne and Ferris, frequently used for the measure of a hazardous or problematic gambling behavior, with questions asked with a time frame of the past 12 months. As in previous research, respondents were categorized as having no risk gambling 0 points , low risk gambling 1—2 points , moderate-risk gambling 3—7 points , or problem gambling 8 points and above.
Gender and age the latter in age groups were reported, as well as living conditions categories collapsed into living alone without children vs. Also, it was reported whether the individual had ever self-excluded from gambling through the national self-exclusion system Spelpaus 1 , a governmental authority-based system introduced in Swedish gambling legislation since January 1st, , and which allows a person to self-exclude for a duration of up to 12 months with the possibility of prolongation from all legal licensed gambling operators in the country.
Sample characteristics and gambling patterns were reported as descriptive data. Also, for each gambling type, descriptive data report the percentage of past-year gamblers for that gambling type who report having used it during the past 30 days. Pastday gamblers—for each gambling type—were compared to nonday past-year-gamblers for that gambling type, using chi-square analyses. Seventy-five percent of respondents were men, and a majority were either working or retired.
A full description of the characteristics of the study sample is found in Table 1. Table 2. For those reporting pastday gambling, compared to those denying that but reporting past-year gambling for the same gambling type, being a moderate-risk or problem gamblers was significantly more likely among the recent gamblers for land-based casino gambling, land-based electronic machine gambling, and for any sports betting, but less likely for online horse betting.
The pastday gamblers for online casino and land-based poker were significantly more likely to be female, whereas the recent online horse bettors were significantly more likely to be men Table 3. The percentage of respondents in active work or studying were lower in recent gamblers for online casino 68 vs. Table 3. Those who reported pastday sports betting were more likely to have a history of indebtedness 11 vs. The present study is among the first studies reporting recent online gambling data from the COVID crisis.
The present study included online gamblers, and focused on the characteristics of those reporting or not reporting recent gambling, in a situation with a changing gambling market where all major sports events had been canceled world-wide.
Thereby, the study attempts to shed light onto the discussion about whether the dramatic changes in the society during COVID could affect gambling among online gamblers. In summary, it can be concluded that online gambling types were more common compared to their past-year rates than were the land-based gambling types.
Importantly, sports bettors who did report sports betting even during this period, where such betting in the society was assumingly rare, had a very high degree of gambling problems and indebtedness, and gambled more. There was no indication that past-year sports bettors who denied betting in the recent COVIDaffected period would have an increased gambling on other types of gambling.
However, online horse bettors appeared to have a lower degree of gambling problems if they were recent gamblers, such that the characteristics of this group of gamblers may have been different during the pandemic than in the months prior to that. In the present study, pastday gambling was comparable to the previous study for online casino 31 vs. Instead, pastday gambling in the present study was higher for online horse betting 59 vs.
While respondents in the present study tended to be older, the data still describe clearly that land-based gambling types were markedly lower this time, whereas the percentages for online casino and online bingo appeared to be unchanged during the COVID situation. Thus, although movements between gambling types cannot be analyzed here, the present data confirm the hypothesis that during the pandemic, some gambling types are more likely maintained than others, in line with the reported changes to the gambling market during the pandemic, whereas other types are more likely affected.
For example, a low reporting of land-based casino gambling was far from surprising, as the major official casinos were closed during the study period, although smaller restaurant-based casinos may still be operating in many places in the country. This is consistent with the description of a relatively substantial migration of gamblers from land-based gambling opportunities to online gambling during casino lockdown in Ontario, Canada Price, The higher degree of gambling problems and indebtedness in past-month gamblers were consistent with the hypothesis that in times where gambling of some types is scarce, those who still engage in that gambling type differ from those who do not.
In this context; in times when sports betting is scarce, those who still bet on the reduced amount of sports are likely to have more severe gambling problems. In the present study, land-based gambling options, such as casino and gaming machine gambling in the land-based modality, also displayed the same pattern. Thus, even though this was a sample recruited for their online gambling patterns; those who did report recent gambling on the markedly reduced land-based gambling types, had more severe gambling problems.
In COVID and potential future similar crises, preventive efforts and interventions should address individuals who maintain gambling behaviors which are abandoned by a majority due to physical and legal restrictions. Sports betting was far from inexistent even during the weeks when the global restrictions from COVID were the largest, such as during confinement in many countries. Here, it should be borne in mind that individuals were recruited based on their past-year gambling online on 10 occasions or more, i.
Thus, the present study may capture a group with particularly pronounced involvement in gambling and low tendencies to give up gambling completely. Also, it is clear that despite the nearly total lock-down of well-established sports world-wide, some sports events still did occur. For example, there have been reports of low-tier soccer games receiving disproportional attention on betting sites, which has been highlighted mainly in the context of fears of fraud match-fixing.
Therefore, again, despite a very large decrease in sports-related gambling opportunities world-wide, individuals who stick to the few gambling options left on the market may be a group presenting particularly high risk of gambling problems. It has been discussed whether specific other gambling types would attract new users because of the COVID, with the fear that some gambling types would put ex-bettors into more addictive gambling because of turning to other than the preferred gambling type.
In the present study, for most gambling types, the pastday gamblers either did not differ from past-year gamblers, or had a higher degree of gambling problems, such as for sports betting as discussed above , land-based electronic gambling machines, or land-based casino. It is difficult to know whether the enhanced gambling problems in these recent gamblers are due to a recent increase because of the pandemic, or simply because frequent gamblers are more likely to report recent gambling compared to a person who gambles only occasionally, and therefore likely with a lower degree of problems.
Interestingly, however, one specific gambling type demonstrates the opposite trend; online horse bettors had significantly less gambling problems if they reported pastday use, compared to past-year users with no recent use of that type.
Although this was measured in a limited sample and can be subject to confounding factors unknown here, it can be hypothesized that this specific gambling type has attracted individuals during the pandemic who have less gambling problems and who typically do not engage in horse race betting, such as if a move had happened from other more pandemic-influenced gambling types to this one.
In contrast to the association with gambling problems and indebtedness , it is interesting to note that employment status, or living alone, were factors unrelated to the reporting of recent sports betting; thus, this study gives no support to the idea that living conditions or a labor situation affected by the crisis may change gambling patterns.
However, this issue would require more research, including more detailed and in-depth analyses including longitudinal study designs, and likely would merit from a longer time frame to study than only the weeks of crisis preceding this study. The present sub-analysis, describing sports betting and other gambling behaviors in online gamblers during a unique change to the society and to the gambling market, may have implications in immediate association with the COVID crisis.
For the remainder of the acute and sub-acute phases of the pandemic, those who bet even on a scarce betting market may be more likely to have gambling problems and should be particularly approached by responsible gambling strategies. Likewise, both in the short and long run, the present findings call for more research following gamblers over time during and after the pandemic, and particularly interventions research testing methods to prevent excessive gambling in the context of this crisis.
Such interventions may involve legal constraints on gambling types perceived to be particularly hazardous, in particular rapid online games, such as the limitation of advertisements or deposit limits suggested by policy makers in some settings Reuters, ; SBC News, The actual effect of such interventions remains to be studied.
Interventions may also involve an increased awareness in mental health care or social support settings, where hazardous gambling patterns can be screened for in times of a financial crisis. Although the world has never seen a crisis similar to the present one, study implications may also be relevant to other crises of a magnitude affecting many parts of society, including the world of sports and gambling. Also, again, it puts attention to the importance to address the role of gambling in sports; for example, previous research has shown that elite athletes Grall-Bronnec et al.
He had become famous overnight. Sportpesa hailed the jackpot as "the biggest payout in African football history" and must have enjoyed the free publicity it received by media houses as Samuel Abisai moved from one station to the next. Such windfalls are making most young people convinced that good fortune could be all they need to change their lives.
Even for those in official employment, the urge to try to win something, is high. It is for such reasons that Kenyan youth are increasingly getting lost into betting and gambling and many are getting to points beyond recovery. The purpose of this article is to assess the problem of betting and gambling and their effects n youth in Kenya and how this is undermining development in Kenya.
It is estimated that youth are gambling over 20 billion shillings per month in Kenya and much of this money ends up in foreign accounts. Gambling has become a past time to many youth in Kenya. Many youth are merchandizing their household goods and taking the money into gambling. The crisis is experienced in both rural and urban areas alike, so that every Kenyan youth is under threat.
Using secondary sources, newspaper reports, other media sources and oral interviews, this article seeks to focus on the causes of gambling and problems of betting and gambling among youth in Kenya. The article looks at how youth are betting on sports and how they are misusing family resources in the quick-rick schemes that never work. The article examines addiction to gambling as a disease and how gamblers need to be assisted as medical condition.
The article points out many of the areas that need to be addressed in order to end this crisis in Kenya, especially through creation of peer counselling facilities and rehabilitation. Online gambling venues as relational actors in addiction: Applying the actor-network approach to life stories of online gamblers.
Background: With the emerging technologies of the Internet and smartphones during the last decades, the gambling environment has undergone a massive transformation. In Sweden, and Europe in general, online gambling has more than doubled In Sweden, and Europe in general, online gambling has more than doubled since Method: The paper studies online gambling venues OGVs as relational actors of addiction. By drawing on the actor-network theory ANT and assemblage thinking, we examine how OGVs, as actors in specific networks of attachment, enable the development of gambling addiction and facilitate its continuation.
The data consists of life story interviews with 34 online gamblers. Results: Online gambling venues extend the scope of gambling opportunities through space, providing an easy portable hours-a-day access to gambling online and on smartphones. This increases the spatial mobility of gambling to diverse contexts. By linking gambling to more unpredictably evolving patterns of relations, online gambling venues also increase gambling's temporal mobility to intrude in the habitual trajectories of everyday life.
By enhancing the gambling mobility through space and time, OGVs simultaneously extend the scope of situations in which gambling may transform from a controlled activity into an addiction. It is then that the actor-networks of gambling infiltrate in the actor-networks of work, domestic life and leisure, and start to feed processes where they are translated to serve the interests of gambling.
Conclusion: By giving us tools to challenge simplistic and taken-for-granted explanations of gambling addiction and by allowing us to grasp the flux and changing nature of addiction as a relational pattern of heterogeneous contextual attachments, the actor-network theory can help us to understand the complexity and multiplicity of gambling problems.
The knowledge on what kinds of contextual attachments in diverse actor-networks enable harmful gambling and sustain unhealthy relations helps practitioners to focus treatment interventions especially on these contextual linkages and their configurations. Eva Samuelsson. It cannot be denied that casino industry is one of the popular business in most It cannot be denied that casino industry is one of the popular business in most of the regions in South-East Asia.
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In fact, there are variety of Singapore online casinos or E-Gaming platforms to choose from, but the author has managed to narrow down the online casino list and would provide the best online casino in Singapore. Hfive5 The Best Online Casino Singapore — You Have To Know As above-mentioned online casinos are operating all around in Singapore, and players could get easily confused while searching for an legitimate online-betting website.
Unfortunately, there is a sad news to tell the gamblers community that most of the online casino platforms are not legalised by the local authority, thus gamblers would somehow face the potential risk of fraud or may breach the law by playing illegal online betting websites. Since , the local authority has announced a new law in order to penalise the illegal operating online casino in Singapore, which is call Remote Gambling Act RGA.
For someone who illegally participating in online gambling could possibly fineable up to SGD , and 6 months of jail or both. However, there are still some of the local land-based bookie or online-based bookie had been granted permission to operate in the casino industry. The most popular online-casino in Singapore, which called Hfive has been recently awarding by the local authority and is granted to operating online casino.
Similarly, it can be strongly believed that others legitimate online bookie, such as Singapore Pools and Singapore Turf Club are also permitted to operate in casino industry. Both of the website are more aligned on sportsbook, but gamblers could find variety of casino games list with high-resolution graphics through hfive Furthermore, gamblers could somehow doubt at the list of above-mentioned online casino that provided by that author, but now the author will giving the reasons and demonstrating how author had promoted the Hfive5 as one of the best online casino in Singapore.
Based on the local gamblers community and forums, there are lots of casino reviews had been published online. Many experts will be conducting a research based on those reviews, ratings, and comments in order to give suggestion of a fair and reliable online casino website. For instance, AskGamblers is one of the popular casino reviews website that provide a list of reliable online casino platform.
There are still lots of reliable online casino existed in the market which proposed by the local gambler community. It could be somehow the sponsors of the casino website to the reviews author, thus it is strongly suggested that gambler should go through reviews at reliable gambling forums. In fact, a fair and reliable gambling forums will monitor and verify the reliability and fairness of each online casino website, as well as their customer service quality, bonus distribute, software or providers platforms, banking systems, and others.
Again, there are tons of great online casinos in today market, thus it could get daunting trying to find an online betting platform that would satisfy your requirements. According to some sophisticated gambler forums a directory will be published in order to guide the gamblers to find the ideal online casino that suit them best and gambler can even trying to familiarise the ratings and reviews system in casino industry.
On the other hand, most of the ratings platforms will conduct some other system in order to filter and further rated for the casino websites. Ranking would be another work that conducted by the local online gambler community in order to find out the best rank online betting website in Singapore. With those information include reviews and ranks of casinos, the creators of the platforms are trying to find the best possible gaming experience for the gamblers and it is obvious their duty to provide various of important information in order to guide and educate the gamblers on making the right decision in choosing an online casino website.
Certainly, it can be strongly believed that gamblers could possibly find a best online casino website which suit them best through those sophisticated gambling directories and reviews systems across the states. Loot boxes are virtual items in video games that offer the player randomised in-game rewards of uncertain in-game and real-world value. Paid loot boxes represent a lucrative and prevalent contemporary monetisation method that encourages Paid loot boxes represent a lucrative and prevalent contemporary monetisation method that encourages repeat purchase through randomisation.
The psychology literature has consistently reported a relationship between loot boxes and problem gambling. However, various implementations of loot boxes have not been sufficiently differentiated and separately examined. The literature and gambling regulators have generally argued that only loot boxes that cost real-world money to buy, and offer rewards that can be transferred to other players and are consequently worth real-world money, constitute 'gambling.
This paper hypothesises that even loot boxes that neither cost real-world money to buy nor offer rewards that are worth real-world money may be potentially harmful as they may normalise gambling behaviours. This paper highlights that, when the game's design and economy are exploited by players, a particular implementation of loot boxes may involve real-world money, potentially contrary to the game company's intentions, and thereby effectively constitute 'gambling.
Gambling is a severe addiction and has caused many people to lose whatever savings they have chasing a dream. It seems like a simple enough premise: wager money, and if the odds are in your favor, you win. However, as most gamblers will However, as most gamblers will tell you, the odds are rarely in your favor. Scientific American points out that humans don't truly understand statistics in a meaningful way, leading to us continually thinking that we can win at gambling.
In this article, we'll explore why gamblers continue to play, even though the odds of winning are so ridiculously stacked against them. Bet9ja Casino. Regarding to the security issue in all aspects and as to chief executive officer famous quote "if the alien had been came from space or someday the time traveler's has been arrived from future, they could never penetrate to EBET Agency's casino software security layers" as their use cloud casino software, which use more than dozen protocol and firewalls.
These casino software and their casino cloud solutions tries to complete the range of a business's functions and process to be able to present a whole view of the business from singular information technology architecture to all parts of bet and Casino Company. Casino, bet and gambling enterprises' websites does not possess sufficient financial and human recourse, in comparison to the large size public casino which located around the world physically; hence, it will not allow them to have a sufficient chance to compete with powerful casino company competitors, in a business environment.
In the future with eight factors we will conduct survey, factor analysis and logistic regression to determine factors affecting EBET Agency's Cloud Casino Software adoption. Once online poker, always online poker? Poker modality trajectories over two years. Online poker is considered more at-risk than land-based poker in terms of intense gambling behaviors and gambling problems. The development of many online gambling sites has raised public health concerns about the potential increase in The development of many online gambling sites has raised public health concerns about the potential increase in online poker players.
Longitudinal studies are useful to better understand the evolution of gambling behaviors; however, very few consider online poker players. Using a prospective design, this study aims to identify online and land-based trajectories over a two-year period and the factors influencing those trajectories. Edition: Available editions Global Perspectives. Become an author Sign up as a reader Sign in. Accessing gambling and pornography sites may well get harder in Australia, if plans for mandatory age-verification go ahead.
But there are already technical workarounds for determined web users. It is possible to 'gamble responsibly', with these handy tips. But if you can't, there's help. Banning offshore gambling sites sounds sensible enough, and the federal government is planning to do this. But to what extent are these sites really ripping off Australian gamblers? Online gambling algorithims and blurred lines on what constitutes an advert on social media mean advertising principles are being flouted.
Some football bets are 50 times more harmful than others. When you engage in recreational gambling, you're not simply playing against the odds — you're battling an enemy trained in the art of deceit and subterfuge who uses human nature against you. For online gamblers, there are many attractions to offshore sights, so governments must focus on arming consumers with better knowledge about its risk.
Online gambling collects a huge amount of data. But instead of personalising offers to keep you hooked, real-time data can be used to prevent problematic gambling behaviour.
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