These successful individuals have higher evolutionary fitness than other individuals and are more likely to pass on their genes. Therefore, genes and traits that help individual survival and reproduction will increase in prevalence in the population. For example, in the context of plant pollination, a plant with flowers full of nectar will be more likely to reproduce and have higher fitness than plants with a smaller nectar supply because it is more likely to be visited by a pollinator for definitions of key terms, see Table 1.
Like other ecological interactions, including competition and predation, mutualisms between plants and pollinators can result in evolution. Evolution can occur through plant—pollinator interactions in a variety of ways that can be demonstrated through the activities described below.
In particular, this exercise promotes scientific learning that allows students to critically think as evolutionary biologists. Leonard emphasized this style of learning at the college level, and we applied that concept in this pollination exercise for high school students to approach evolution from the plant perspective.
These activities have been field tested in classroom settings and are particularly appropriate for students in grades 8— Further development of the exercises for the college level could add in the perspective of evolution from the pollinator perspective to increase the level of complexity. The evolution of plant reproductive systems has been of interest to scientists for quite some time Darwin, , This is not surprising given the enormous diversity exhibited in flowering plants.
Plants are modular organisms, and thus male and female gametes are packaged in a wide array of spatial and temporal combinations at the flower, inflorescence, and plant levels. In fact, flowers, the reproductive unit of angiosperms, exhibit a stunning display of configurations and evolutionary strategies Barrett, One major reason for the evolution of floral diversity is that plants are sessile and therefore must rely on vectors — biotic or abiotic agents that transfer pollen between flowers — for cross-fertilization.
Pollination vectors are a strong selective force leading to the evolution of pollination syndromes, suites of floral characteristics that enable abiotic pollination or appeal to specific pollinating animals e. Pollinators are essential for reproduction in the majority of flowering plants Ollerton et al.
By facilitating sexual reproduction, pollinators promote genetic variation in plants. In turn, genetic variation aids adaptation in new and variable environments and is strongly correlated with plant reproductive success Charlesworth, ; Leimu et al. This classroom exercise utilizes the example of plant—pollinator systems to demonstrate the relation of plant fitness to natural selection.
Students will also understand how fitness is related to gene flow, indirect selection, and inbreeding. Pollination biology provides a charismatic and approachable topic for exploring evolution. This is a game with three rounds for 15—20 students, designed to illustrate concepts in evolutionary biology.
Students will learn central evolutionary themes, including natural selection, gene flow, indirect selection, and inbreeding depression. Pollinators facilitate the plant's male fitness component by donating pollen grains, while flowers represent the plant's female fitness component by gaining pollen grains to fertilize ovules.
Each of the three rounds demonstrates a different concept. There is ample possibility for this game to be modified to illustrate additional concepts in ecology and evolution, particularly incorporating the fitness effects on pollinators see Table 1 for key concepts and definitions. Students in the flower group aim to receive as many pollen grains as possible, and students in the pollinator group aim to give away all their pollen grains. Pollinators are each given five yellow circles that represent pollen grains, and an assigned pollinator type e.
Discussion questions and answers for each round of the game are provided at the end of each round. Students receive pollen grains. Students hand out one pollen grain during each round of the game. Flower signs for approximately half the students Figure 1A ; flowers can be printed in the number or color equivalent to the number of types of candy used [see below] or colored in class, before Round 3. Pollen grains and pollinator type e.
Score cards for each student Figure 2. Score card for keeping track of individual and population classroom fitness achieved during each round of the Pollination Game. Pollinators are given a short time 30 seconds to 1 minute to visit flowers.
On each visit a pollinator can give only one pollen grain to an individual flower. Tally the score. Each flower and pollinator marks on their score sheet how many pollen grains they received or gave. Note: It is possible for flowers to acquire more than five pollen grains. On their score cards, students record the class average for pollen grains received or donated.
Answer: The pollen grains represent the male fitness component of flowering plants in nature because pollinators transport the male reproductive unit, pollen; whereas the flower represents the female fitness component that receives the pollen. In nature, most flowering plants will optimize female and male fitness by both receiving and donating as many pollen grains as possible.
Plants that had flowers with the most pollen grains had the highest female fitness. Answer: The more pollen grains a flower received, the more ovules that could be fertilized to make seeds. The plant with the most seeds will pass on its genes more and have high fitness. Pollinators that gave away all their pollen grains had higher plant male fitness than those that did not give away all their pollen grains.
Answer: In this exercise, pollinators represent the male side of plant fitness, and plants that donate all their pollen grains to receptive flowers fertilize more ovules. They are more likely to pass their genes on through the seeds and therefore have higher fitness than those plants that do not donate all their pollen grains.
Reset the game. Each flower now pairs up with a pollinator. With an odd number of students, someone can become the observer. While the flower will want to collect as many pollen grains as possible, the pollinator will have the goal of delivering all five pollen grains during the action phase. First, students are given a short time 2—5 minutes to strategize ways to maximize fitness. The team should also think about the best way for the pollinator to deliver pollen grains efficiently.
They should write short notes about their strategy on their scorecards. Once everyone is ready, pollinators are given about 2 minutes to visit flowers. On each visit, a pollinator can give only one pollen grain to an individual flower. Each flower and pollinator team gets back together and tallies their score on their score sheet. The class as a whole should calculate the average of all the team scores; this will serve as a comparison to the average score when accounting for only one component of fitness.
Why did the flower and pollinator teams combine scores? Answer: This more accurately represents fitness in nature — the female component via seeds that will be formed after receiving pollen grains and the male component via pollen donation to sire seeds. Many flowering plants are actually hermaphroditic, and therefore individuals are capable of achieving fitness through male and female success.
Many worms, mollusks, and fish are hermaphroditic as well Barrett, Did students optimize fitness by visiting or being visited by near neighbors, or did pollinators move around the room a lot? Why might this matter? Answer: In nature, near neighbors of sessile organisms are more likely to be related. By exchanging genetic material with neighbors, the chance of inbreeding is very high. Inbreeding has negative consequences due to inbreeding depression.
With inbreeding, rare deleterious alleles can be expressed that have severe negative impacts on fitness. Thinking about the last question: What could happen if a pollinator visited the flowers with pollen from a completely different population? Would this increase or decrease the fitness of the flowers that the pollinator visited? Answer: It could be either. Pollen from another population could introduce novel genetic variation through gene flow that would benefit the offspring of any seeds that it sires.
On the other hand, pollen from another population may introduce genes that are not adapted to the conditions that this population is experiencing. For example, the pollen could contain genes that are better adapted to cold conditions, and the present population may be in a warm environment. Now, all the flowers whose team has a high score greater than the average score for the class should raise their hands. What if all of the plants with these flowers also carried a gene that resulted in smaller leaves?
What would the next generation look like, and what natural evolutionary concept does this exemplify? Answer: The next generation would have a greater proportion of individuals with small leaves. This is an example of indirect selection , whereby the gene that changed in frequency was not under direct selection but increased in prevalence due to an association to a trait that was under direct selection. Flowers are asked to pick a spot in the room and remain stationary. After the flowers are given candy, the pollinator types are each assigned a candy color preference.
For example: bats prefer green, bees prefer yellow, and hummingbirds prefer red. Just make sure each pollinator has a single color preference. Pollinators are given 2 minutes to visit flowers with a reward of their color preference. On each visit, a pollinator can give only two pollen grains to an individual flower. But in exchange for pollen grains, the flowers can give the pollinators one piece of candy per pollen grain. As a class, students calculate the average number of pollen grains received by color reward type and pollen grains donated by pollinator type.
Did some plants achieve much higher female fitness through the flowers in this round than in the other rounds? Answer: Pollinators showed preference for certain flowers because they offered rewards. In this game, the candy is analogous to flowers that offer different kinds of nectar in nature.
Flowers that offered no reward may not have been visited much or at all. If flowers that offered one type of reward e. Answer: There would be a great proportion of flowers that offered that reward, because more of those genes were passed on to the offspring.
Plants offering that reward would have much higher female fitness. Pollinator preference acts as a selective force for flowers with certain floral rewards. What would happen if only one type of pollinator was present? Answer: If the pollinator had a strong preference as in this exercise , the flowers with that type of reward would receive more pollen grains and those individuals would have greater female fitness.
If plants with flowers that have more rewards to offer can achieve high fitness, then why don't all flowers offer lots and lots of the best rewards? Answer: There is a resource trade-off between generating rewards like nectar and also having enough resources to produce viable seeds. This is known as resource allocation. When setting up this added level of complexity, the instructor should carefully consider how individual pollinators can learn to associate floral rewards with specific floral traits versus the population of pollinators evolving in response to plant-mediated selection e.
This scenario would provide an excellent opportunity to discuss the difference between learned and inherited traits in terms of pollinator evolution. Animal Hospital In "Name that Animal," match seven different exotic animals with their correct names to discover more information about each animal. No plug-in required. Ape Genius In "Our Family Tree," compare and contrast humans' social grouping, temperament, diet, and more with the four other great apes, and hear what each one sounds like.
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We developed a card sorting activity based on tree thinking that is suitable for students with a wide range of abilities and experience. Through this activity, students learn how scientists organize taxa into biologically meaningful, natural groups that illustrate important events in terrestrial plant evolution.
The activity corresponds to several NGSS standards and is suitable for use in classroom or laboratory settings and as a public educational outreach activity. The game involves disciplinary core ideas about biodiversity, evolution, and common ancestry; crosscutting concepts regarding identification and interpretation of patterns; and scientific practices of constructing explanations and engaging in arguments from evidence that can guide individualized implementation and assessment of the activity by different instructors.
Low botany and evolution literacy in students leaves them unable to fully appreciate the contributions of these fields to our understanding of the natural world. Consequently, students are unable to consider the many career options that involve plants or cannot critically evaluate issues ranging from the use of genetically modified crops to content of science curricula Ward et al. Many excellent, inquiry-based modules for the classroom and laboratory have been developed to improve student understanding of botany and evolution separately, but there are relatively few quick activities suitable for use across grade levels that bring these topics together.
It was intended to quickly teach booth visitors fundamental botanical and evolutionary concepts through a combination of tree thinking and card sorting. After successful use at the public outreach event, we discovered that combining tree thinking and card sorting is an effective way for students to demonstrate their understanding of evolution and features of the taxa being studied.
This activity also helps teachers rapidly identify misconceptions and evaluate students' level of disciplinary expertise and approach to problem solving Chi et al. The game requires two sets of 27 cards. Cards in Sets A and B have a picture, the common name, and the scientific name of identical plant species on the front of the cards Figure 1. Set B also has icons printed on the front of the cards and patterns of colored dots on the back. Icons represent different plant traits Figure 2.
Dot patterns broadly represent ribulose bisphosphate carboxy-oxygenase large subunit rbcL gene sequence data. Each set has one alga, two bryophytes, four seedless vascular plants, six gymnosperms, two basal angiosperms, seven eudicots, and five monocots. Playing card size Supplement A, Supplement B or a larger size cards for visually impaired students Supplement A Large, Supplement B large can be printed, cut, folded, and laminated using supplemental files. See the Supporting Material at the end of this article.
Example of Set A cards top row and Set B cards bottom row , showing traits on the fronts of the columbine and whisk fern cards and rbcL dot patterns for the cactus card on the back. The fundamental idea of the game is to have players sort cards into groups. Their groupings are a hypothesis of the relationships among the species. The player then tests their hypothesis using genetic data represented by patterns of colored dots, and interprets what their groupings indicate about important traits in plant evolution.
As a type of warm-up, players should be informed that characteristics or DNA sequences show patterns, and biologists try to understand the information in the patterns to group organisms. A nested pattern of relationships can be developed when similar patterns are used to group organisms together, and unique patterns are used to differentiate groups.
For example, consider the dot color and texture patterns shown in Figure 3. The patterns could be a proxy for nucleotide sequences in this explanation. The three species are grouped together based on shared, similar dots in positions 1 and 4.
However, the difference in position 2 between species C and species A and B, in conjunction with the shared similarity between A and B, places the two species in a sub-group together. Species A and B are placed in separate groups based on their difference at position 3. A more detailed activity to demonstrate genetic variation and groupings can be found in Ofner In the first round of the game, a player individual or small team is given the cards in Set A and asked to sort them into groups of related species based on whatever traits they choose.
After sorting, the player should explain the rationale for their groupings. Individuals should report back to the class and discuss the similarities and differences in observed traits that they used to group cards. Often this will result more from gross phenotypic similarity than strong evolutionary trend.
After the discussion, these cards are set aside, with the groupings retained. For the second round, the player is given cards from Set B with the dot patterns upward and asked to sort them into groups based on the rbcL dot patterns. After the second sorting round, the player again explains the rationale for groupings and compares how they are similar to and different from the first round groupings. After comparing and contrasting their groupings, the Set B cards are turned over to show the pictures and icons.
The player is now asked to describe whether the groupings based on dots show any patterns with regard to the plant traits. Students should also explain how their rbcL data groupings relate to the traits of the different species.
At this point, students should discuss how comparisons of groupings based on the dots i. Patterns in the genetic data represented by dots and the patterns of traits should also be used to guide the discussion and highlight concepts of data congruence and identify the major events in plant evolution. To complete the activity, round two groupings are then used to demonstrate how biologists use phylogenies to graphically display relationships among species and trait evolution.
By placing the cards on a large sheet of paper or whiteboard, a tree diagram can be drawn to unify their groupings Figure 4. Traits such as vascular tissue, use of motile sperm, or production of fruits can then be mapped on the phylogeny. A tree can also be drawn for the first round groupings to show how they are less parsimonious and give a confused perspective on trait evolution. Nested, hierarchical groupings can also be shown by drawing circles around groupings to further illustrate phylogenetic principles in grouping taxa Figure 5.
At this point, students should discuss how the diagrams show the sequence of how different traits arose over the course of plant evolution and the importance of reproductive traits in plant evolution. A head-to-head variation can be used to take a slightly different approach to exploring the topic.
Using two complete sets of cards, two individuals or teams play in a head-to-head competition to sort identical Set A cards as quickly as possible and explain their rationale as described above. Typically, there will be a number of differences between competitors' groupings after the first round.
For the second round, teams sort the Set B cards as quickly as possible. However, one team uses the side with pictures and icons, and the other team uses the side with rbcL data. Except for occasional minor differences, the groupings are predominately identical, which further highlights data congruence. Sorting in the first round is typically based on superficial similarities that put distantly related species into the same group e.
In the second round, groupings based on the dot patterns are often dramatically different from the first round. Players can usually explain how heritable genetic data indicated by the rbcL dots can be used to identify large, inclusive groups and differentiate smaller, more exclusive groups.
They also identify traits such as the types of flowers, which segregate some plants into more exclusive groups, and other traits, such as the presence of vascular tissue, which delimit larger, more inclusive groups. The general sequence of vascular tissues evolving first, followed by evolution of seeds and flowers, is also evident after the second round.
When comparing phylogenies drawn from the first and second round groupings, the first round groupings are usually less parsimonious as a result of numerous homoplasies. Players typically organize species into accurate natural groupings using the trait icons or rbcL dot patterns.
After comparing phylogenies, students discover how shared traits show common ancestry among taxa, but unique traits differentiate lineages. Students will also begin to build a framework to understand key innovations in plant evolution. The Botanical Phylo-Card Game provides a simple and effective platform to teach fundamental botany and evolution concepts. Through a simple, card-sorting activity, we bring these four ideas together in a way that engages learners in discovering how botanists use evolutionary principles of tree thinking to understand the history and diversity of plants.
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